ulwazi ngokhuni

Ulwazi ngokhuni

Izinkuni cishe, eduze kwetshe, into yokuqala eyenziwa ngayo umuntu wazenzela amathuluzi nezinsiza. Usizo lokuqala lomuntu omdala lwalungekho kungaba lutho ngaphandle kweklabhu, isiteki, igatsha, noma iva, umkhondo walo owanyamalala emakhulwini eminyaka edlule.
 
Izinkuni azizange zibe nenzuzo ngaphezu kwabanye esikhathini esidlule izinto zokwakha, isenobukhulu njengeyona esetshenziswa kakhuluout impahla. Nokho, njengethuluzi - ikakhulukazi ngemva izenzakalo I-plastic mass - iyacindezelwa, ngoba inqwaba "yezinkuni" amathuluzi afana nezibambo zamathuluzi, imizimba yamapulani, njll. abakwenzayo namuhla kusuka kumapulasitiki. Namuhla, izinkuni zisetshenziswa ikakhulukazi njenge impahla, kusukela esakhiweni sophahla kuya ku-skeleton moizingxenye zendiza, kusukela ku-bulkheads kuya kwizibalo zokhuni.
 
Ulwazi ngokhuni
 
Uma uthi nhlá, kubonakala kulula kakhulu ukuthola indlela yakho phakathi kwezihlahlaizinto zokwakha. Nokho, lokhu akunjalo: ngokuqonda, ukuhlukaniswa, ukusetshenziswa kanye nokucubungula izinkuni kuyadingeka ulwazi lochwepheshe.
 
Lapho esebenza ngaphansi kokuqondisa kwakhe, umuntu uhlangana nokhuni njengamapulangwe asahliweyo, i.e. umkhiqizo osuphelile. Omama abanjalokwakungalezi: izintambo, imishayo, amapulangwe, amapulangwe nama-slabs. Zonke lezi zinto zingenziwa ngokhuni oluthambile noma oluqinile. Umehluko phakathi kwalezi zinto zombili emkhakheni wokucubungula kanye nobude besikhathiumthwalo mkhulu. Ukhuni oluthambile lubonakala ngemicu yalo emikhulu, isakhiwo ngokusobala esibuthakathaka kanye nokucindezelwa kalula. Cishe iningi ukhuni oluthambile olusetshenziswayo yifir. I-fir wood ilula futhi inhle ingalolongwa. Endlini nasendlini nxazonke, isetshenziselwa ukwenza: iminyango, amafasitela, amafreyimu, njll. Abadala babethi yithi ukhuni oluthambile lulandela impilo yalo yonke, kusukela kumbeleko kuya ibhokisi lomngcwabo.
 
Ukhuni oluqinile lugcwele, lukhulu futhi lusinda. I-cubic eyodwa i-decimeter ye-roughwood inesisindo esingu-830 g, kanye nevolumu efanayo zokhuni oluthambile kuphela 450 gr. Imicu yokhuni oluqinile iminyene isabalalise futhi ikhombise imigqa emihle. Ukhuni oluqinile lunzima kakhulu ukuhlukanisa futhi kukhona ama-splinters ambalwa. Isibonelo esihle sokubonisa izici Ukhuni oluqinile luyisibambo somshanelo, izibambo zamathuluzi ahlukahlukene kanye ne-parquet. Izihlahla ezinamahlamvu afana nenaliti, ezihlala ziluhlaza, zithambile, futhi zisuka i-deciduous, i-birch, i-poplar, i-willow ne-linden ibhekwa njengethambile.
 
Izinkuni ezomile kuphela ezingaphansi kuka-13% ezifanele ukucutshungulwa. umswakama. Wood iqukethe umswakama hhayi kuphela lapho ngokushesha ngemva ukugawulwa kuyacutshungulwa (imvamisa kuthiwa ngokuhlekisayo "kulesihlahla isanda kuculwa inyoni emnyama"), kodwa nalapho isaqhubekaumdlwane waba nethuba lokumunca umswakama. Kuyaziwa lokho ukhuni luyi-hygroscopic, kodwa amanzi amuncwa ngokushesha akhululwa kuwo kancane kancane iyahwamuka. Ukhuni oluthambile kufanele lube mdala okungenani iminyaka emibili ngemuva kokusikwa iminyaka, futhi ezine kanzima, ukuze zome ngokwanele ukuze zicutshungulwe. Yiqiniso, lokhu kunjalo lapho ukomiswa kwenziwa ezimweni zamahhala, i.e. ngokwemvelo. Manje kunezinhlelo zamakhompiyutha zesimanje nezomisi ezijiyisayo ezilawula inqubo yokomisa izinkuni, futhi isikhathi sekhwalithi yokhuni olomisiwe siye sancishiswa izikhathi eziningi.
 
Lapho amanzi ehwamuka okhunini olumanzi - ikakhulukazi uma ukomisa nokumanzisa izikhathi eziningana ngokulandelana, izinkuni zikhubazekile kakhuluigundane, "iyasebenza". Lokhu kuyaqondakala uma ucabangela lokho umswakama omuncwa isihlahla ungafinyelela ku-130% wento eyomile umuthi. I-deformation incike kakhulu endaweniingxenye ehlala njalo yesihlahla, lapho kwakugawulwa khona izingodo. Uma ukuqonda kwe-deformation bekungeke, ngenxa yeminye imiqondo, kuhlaleo ezingaphelele, ake siqale sizijwayeze amagama ezingxenye ukuthi yakha isakhiwo somuthi, usebenzisa uMfanekiso 1.
 
isakhiwo sokhuni
I-SLIKA 1
 
Umfanekiso 2 ukhombisa ukuthi amapulangwe nemishayo kukhubazeka kanjani ukusika ezingxenyeni ezihlukene zomzimba. Isici esibaluleke kakhulu sokhuni yilokhu: umthamo wezinkuni ezimanzi uyancipha ngenxa yokomisa. Iyasebenza yilokho okudingayo lapho wenza izinto ezivela ezintweni zokhuni "zilingane" kahle bese uzisika zibe usayizi omkhudlwana esikhundleni sokuthi Ngaphansi. (Isibonelo esisodwa esisobala: emgodini wokhuni lokho usokhaya uthela amanzi ukuze isihlahla sikhukhumale kukhukhumale umkhombe wayeka ukuvuza amanzi. Ibhodi limunca amanzi futhi livuvukale kakhulu ukuthi imifantu "iyavala" futhi umkhombe awusavuzi).
 
izinkuni deformation
 
I-SLIKA 2
 
Isici sesici sokhuni ukuthi simelana kakhulu ekuqondeni kwemicu, kodwa kulula ukugoqa, kuyilapho i-perpendicular isiqondiso imicu iphuka kalula. Ukumelana kuyahluka kakhulu ngokulutheka kusukela ekushubeni nasekufananeni kokusatshalaliswa kwefayibha. Imicu ewugqinsi nikeza ukumelana okukhulu, futhi endaweni yokuxega nokungalinganiukumelana kwemicu ehlukene ngokulinganayo kuncipha.
 
Ugodo olusahliweyo lusikwa ngobude lubheke lapho okusanhlamvu, ngaphandle lapho ugodo lusonteka, ibhomu. Indawo yokukhula kwamagatsha ziphawulwa ngamafindo, nokusonteka nokuphenduka kwemicu.
 
Uma izingodo ezisikiwe zibanzi kakhulu kunobukhulu, kuze kufike ku-40 mm ukujiya kubizwa ngokuthi ibhodi, futhi ngaphezu kwalokho ukujiya isixuku. Uma ugodo lunesiqephu esiyisikwele, esivamile i-polygonal noma unxande bese ifinyelela kubukhulu obungu-10x10 ibizwa ngokuthi i-batten, futhi ngaphezu kwalezo zilinganiso kukhona imishayo. Uma isigaba cross inesimo esiyinkimbinkimbi, njengokuthi, ngokwesibonelo, izinto ezilungiselelweifreyimu yezithombe, bese ibizwa ngokuthi i-batten profiled.
 
Izingodo ezingasahweni emaceleni ziba neyodwa okungenani uhlangothi olungacutshunguliwe futhi ngenxa yalokho ngeke ludliwe huhlobo eduze komunye nomunye. Iyahlelwa, nokho, ngemuva kokukhuhla bushelelezi, futhi inezindawo ezibushelelezi, ezingenamifantu.
 
Ngokusebenza, ama-veneers, i-plywood kanye okwakamuva: amabhodi ephaneli namabhodi ane-veneered. ngokuvamile uku-amabhodi abizwa ngokungalungile ngokuthi i-veneer! Ngokuvamile i-veneer yenziwa ngokuxebuka kwezihlahla ezinkulu, eziphendukayo, ezicishe zifane ne lapho i-canvas egoqiwe ivuliwe. I-sawed veneer se etholwe ngokusika ibhodi ngemuva kwebhodi eduze kwesihlahla, kanye ne-veneer ehlutshiwe ngommese, ngokusika amapuleti ngommese ngokuphambana ubude besihlahla. Ubukhulu bamapuleti buhluka phakathi kuka-0,6-1,2 mm. I-Veneer ngaphandle kokulimala, ngaphandle kwamafindo, nokuthungwa okuhle i-veneer yokumboza "ubuso", futhi ayinhle kangako, okungenzeka yonakale futhi okuqhubekayo, okunamathiselwe, kuyiveneer ohlangothini olungemuva. Ingaphandle, ibonakala ngophezulu kwefenisha eminingi kumbozwe nge-veneer, kuyilapho kusetshenziswa olunye uhlobo lwe-veneer, isibonelo, ngemuva ifenisha.
 
Amabhodi e-spruce enziwa ngokunamathisela ama-furs amaningana omileamapuleti nir phezu komunye nomunye. Uma iziqondiso ezifanayoi-henna evamile noma i-diagonal, amandla nesisindo ngabaningana izikhathi zidlula amandla nesisindo sebhodi eliwugqinsi olufanayo. Ubukhulu ipuleti ngokwenombolo yezendlalelo yile: 3-5 mm yezendlalelo ezintathu, 6-8 mm kwezendlalelo ezinhlanu kanye no-9-12 mm kwezendlalelo eziyisithupha.
 
I-Veneer ne-plywood zenziwe kuphela ngokhuni oluqinile ngakho-ke asindayo kunamabhodi anogqinsi olufanayo. Isisindo sabo siyakhula futhi ngenxa yeglue.
 
Amapulangwe enziwe ngamapulangwe okhuni oluthambile enamathiselwe phakathi kwamapulangwe amabili e-veneer noma i-plywood, ayanda ukujiya, kutholakala indawo eqinile nenhle, nesisindo namandla makhudlwana kancane kunamapulangwe okhuni athambile anogqinsi olufanayo. U embonini yefenisha, amabhodi ephaneli athole ukusetshenziswa okubanzi.
 
Amabhodi anezigqoko amabhodi okhuni (plywood, panel board, chipboards, ama-hard fibre board njll.) embozwe ngamabhodi epulasitiki uquqaba. Zinohlangothi olulodwa noma zombili zibushelelezi, ziyacwebezela futhi azikhethele ezipendiwe (ukulingisa ibhodi lokhuni, njll). Azishibhile impela, nokho kungenxa yamandla azo, ukubukeka kanye nokuhlanza indawo elula uhlelo lokusebenza olubanzi.
 
Amabhodi e-hard fibre (ama-fiber board) enziwe kusuka imicu ye-hemp echotshoziwe noma ama-softwood shavings exutshwe ne-resin yokufakelwa, okuthi emva kokushisa ukucubungula kucindezela ngaphansi kwengcindezi ephezulu ibe amapuleti. Specific isisindo sabo siphezulu futhi ngamabhodi aqinile angafinyelela i I-150% yesisindo esithile samanzi. Lezi zingcwecwe zivame ukubizwa amapuleti okwenziwa.
 
Futhi ekugcineni, leli qembu lamapuleti lihlanganisa namapuleti angenalutho eyenziwe nge-lattice eyakhiwe ngama-slats e-softwood, embozwe ngamapuleti. Njengoba zingenakunqunywa, kulezi zingcwecwe izakhi ezithile kuphela ezenziwe, ezifana, isibonelo, iminyango.
 

Izihloko ezihlobene