amafayela

Ukusaha, ukufaka, mayelana nokubhola...

I-Saw cutting

 
Lapho echaza umsebenzi wokucubungula izinkuni, kwakukhona amazwi amaningi mayelana nenqubo yokusika izinkuni. Ngokuyisisekelo, cishe kunjalo inqubo efanayo yokusika insimbi ngesaha. Sigcina isaha ngaphakathi indawo evundlile ukuze izipikili zamazinyo zibambe insimbi (Isithombe 1).
 
wabona ukusika
I-SLIKA 1
 
Icala elikhethekile ukusika ipayipi. Uma i-saw cut udonga luyagoba, amazinyo alo ngesikhathi esisodwa asike izinhlangothi ezimbili zepayipi, a lokhu kuvame ukubangela ukuphuka kwamazinyo. Ukuze sibagweme lezi zinkinga, ngesikhathi somsebenzi siphendulela ithubhu kuma-mango ngakho isaha lalizosika uhlangothi olulodwa kuphela. Uma sisika ipayipi enezindonga ezincane, sifaka ibha yokhuni eyindilinga kulo kanje ukuthi ibekwe ngokuqinile ngokumelene nezindonga zamapayipi. Uma izindonga amapayipi anobukhulu obungaphansi kwe-1 mm, siwasika ngesandla esincane ngesaha elibaziweyo.
 

Ukufaka

 
Nanamuhla, abakhandi bezikhiye benza amahlaya ngabafundi baboakukho msebenzi ongokoqobo lapho bewathumela endaweni yokugcina izinto bafuna amafutha efayili. Kuyaziwa ukuthi uwoyela namafutha kuyizitha amafayela, ngoba avimbela ukuhlukaniswa kwezinhlayiya ezincane zikagesiizwi. Umsebenzi waleli thuluzi elisetshenziswa kabanzi ukusiza icindezela ngamazinyo ayo, amafayela futhi ngesikhathi esifanayo isusa ungqimba olungadingekile lwensimbi. Uma ingaphansi kwamazinyo amancane i-lubricant, "azilumi", kodwa zishelela phezu kwento yokwelashwa. Lokhu kulandela ukuthi ifayela kumele ligcinwe lingenawo amafutha. Zisetshenziselwa ukucubungula okuhlukahlukene kwezindawo zensimbi izinhlobo ezahlukene zamafayela ahlukile ngosayizi, umumo kanye Isigaba esiphambanayo.
 
Ubude bamafayela busukela ku-100 kuye ku-500 mm, futhi bangaba isicaba, yindilinga, isemi-round, i-triangular kanye ne-quadrangular.
 
Ngokwendlela yamazinyo, sihlukanisa i-coarse, i-semi-fine futhi kabili amafayela amahle. Lapho ifayela ligugile, ukusikeka kwalo ingavuselelwa. Amafayela anjalo ashibhile. Kuyafakwa iphetha ngethiphu elicijile elishumekwe esibanjeni sokhuni.
 
E-workshop yasekhaya, kuyadingeka ukuba namafayela ahlukahlukene isigaba, isib. isicaba, i-semi-round kanye nesiqephu esisodwa ngasinye amafayela amaholoholo futhi amahle kakhulu 150 mm ubude. Kudingekile nelinye iqoqo lamafayela anamazinyo amathathu, ubude 120 mm (indawo yokusebenza yefayela): isicaba, isikwele, elingunxantathu, eliyindilinga kanye nefayela lommese. Lawa mafayela awanayo i-pozisebenzisa izibambo zokhuni, ngoba zincane futhi zinhle ukuthi zingasetshenziswa ngokushesha bamba ngezandla. Akuyona into engafanele ukunikeza kanye nefayela elikhethekile lokufaka izinsimbi ezithambile (i-aluminium, womthofu).
 
Uma sifayela into, siyibamba ngesandla sobunxele ichopho lefayela, kanye nesibambo ngesandla sokudla, ucindezela ifayela sidonsa ngendiza efanayo futhi ngale ndlela ifayela (isithombe 2). Sibeka i-workpiece ku-vise ekuphakameni indololwane.
 
ukugcwalisa
I-SLIKA 2
 
Indlela yokufaka insimbi ayifani kakhulu nangaphambili indlela eyaziwayo yokufaka impahla yezinkuni. Ngokuvumelana nesidinga ukubumba i-workpiece, sisebenzisa amafayela iphrofayili efanele. Lapho ufaka unqenqema lwento, sibambe ifayela endaweni evundlile futhi nge-engeli ye  45° maqondana nomphetho okuphela kwawo kuseduze nathi ukuya kuwo esinye isiphetho. Ukubunjwa kwemiphetho yokusika, ngaphansi kokuqondile ekhoneni, sikwenza ngefayela eliyisicaba libheke phansi (indiza yethuluzi ivundlile), futhi ukususwa kwezingqimba ezinkulu kubanzi ingxenye yaleli fayela (isithombe 2).
 
Uma usebenzisa ifayela, isikhala phakathi kwamazinyo si igcwele futhi ithuluzi libambelela kancane kancane. Ifayela kufanele libe bushelelezingoshoki ukuvimbela ukuvaleka. I-Chalk powder onemoukuminyana kokushefa kwensimbi phakathi kwamazinyo. Uma kwenzeka, sizosusa ama-shavings ngebhulashi lokufayila lethusi. Lapho sibeka amafayela asilokothi sibashiye phezu komunye nomunye, ngoba ukungqubuzana kusike incithakalo. Kungcono ukuwasebenzisa ngemva kokusetshenziswa ilengise ukuze isibambo sime mpo. Kanjani akumelwe sizigcobe ngamafutha, sizisule futhi sizishiye endaweni eyomile ukuze zingagqwali.
 
Ekugcineni, iseluleko esisodwa nje: ifayela "alibambi" insimbi amathuluzi nezinsimbi eziqinile. "Zingenziwa buthaka" kuphela ngokufaka isihlabathi ipuleti.
 

Mayelana nokubhola

 
Isivele inemininingwane ngaphansi kwesigaba "umbazi endlini". kwakubuye kukhulunywe mayelana nokubhoboza okuvunguzayo kokumba izinsimbi, ngoba manje sizoveza imisebenzi embalwa kuphela.
 
Kufanele sinake ukuthi ngesikhathi sokubhoboza i-axis ye-drill bit ayiguquki indawo yayo kodwa ihlala endaweni efanayo kuze kube sekugcineni njengoba ayenza ekuqaleni kokumba insimbi. Ukubhoboza izimbobo izimbazo ze-arc azinakwenzeka nanamuhla, ngakho-ke kuvame ukwenzeka lokho ongcweti abanolwazi abavele bathume abafundi babo bayofuna ilube kumafayela, kodwa futhi nezinsimbi zokubhoboza izimbobo ze-arc.
 
Ukubhoboza akufanele kuqalwe ngaphandle kokumaka kuqala izindawo zokumba ngomaka - »kirner« (isithombe 3). Lapho ubhoboza umgodi ojulile, i-drill bit isuswa izikhathi eziningana emgodini izimbobo zokususa ama-shavings. Uma i-drill bit ishisa, siyipholisa ngensipho encibilikiswa emanzini, hhayi ngenye into amafutha. Sizosusa i-drill bit ephukile emgodini, ngokukhomba ngodlawu nangokuphendulela izidladla ngakolunye uhlangothi ukunyakaza kwe-spiral groove. Uma i-drill ibhobozile umsebenzi ucezu, futhi ingxenye ephukile ihlala emgodini, singayishaya nge-spike ibhukhimakhi. Ama-Thin twist drill angaphansi kwengcindezi ephakeme kalula kakhulu bayaphuka. Isisindo se-drill sanele umthwalo kubo. Lapho uthenga, kufanele uqiniseke ukuthi i-drill ingangena ku-chuck.
 
ukumaka indawo yokumba
I-SLIKA 3
 
Hlobo luni lwembobo oluzobhobolwa luncike kakhulu kulowo owedlule ukulungiswa komsebenzi. Ngakho-ke, sizobonisa ezinyeabasebenza imisebenzi ngesikhathi sokulungiselela.
 
Ngaphambi kokubhoboza noma iyiphi insimbi, kumelwe siyiphawule ngokunembile indawo yokubhoboza enemigqa emibili ephambana ema-engeli angakwesokudla. Isikhungo sokubhoboza sitholakala endaweni okuphambana kuyo le migqa. Kuzoba lula kakhulu ukudweba imigqa uma ihambisana nemiphetho umsebenzi, futhi singakwenza lokhu ngokusebenzisa insimbi i-angle - i-angle-edge angle. Izingosi zokumba ezikhona ngokulinganayo siqhelelane siphawula ngekhampasi okwensimbi, hhayi ngesilinganiso sensimbi. Ake siphawule ezimbili zokuqala izindawo zokumba bese udweba umugqa omude oqondile kuzo. Sebenzisa i-screwdriver yensimbi ukudlulisa isikhala phakathi kokubili kokuqala amaphuzu emugqeni obonisiwe. Futhi ngakho simaka ezinye izindawo ukubhoboza.
 
Gxilisa izindawo ezimakiwe ngomaka phezulu i-drill bit ibingeke ishelele. Umaka wokumaka ichashazi beka ithiphu endaweni ethile, kodwa uthambekele kancane, ngakho ngemva kokuqondisa, sishaya isiphetho samahhala ngesando.
 
Imizimba esebenzayo, ngaphambi kokumba, kufanele ilungiswe kahle. Kwalokhu amathuba engeziwe anikezwa. Iphrofayili yensimbi ethi "U" iboshelwe kuyo Ithebula lomsebenzi usebenzisa i-washer yesinyathelo, isikulufungayo noma ngocezu lwephrofayili ethi »U«, eyasikwa ngesaha indlela efanele.
 
Singakwazi ukubhoboza onqenqemeni lwensimbi engunxande - winkle.  Ngaphambilini, sifaka unqenqema lwe-winkle bese simaka indawo buukuthunga ngenaliti kanye nezesekeli zokumaka amachashazi ngangokunokwenzekaukubhoboza i-guzava ye-angle iron. 
 
ukuqiniswa kwemigoqo eyindilinga ephambanayo
I-SLIKA 4
 
Ukuze uqinise izinduku ze-cross-section, kufanelekile ukwenza, i-clamp ekhethekile eyenziwe ngensimbi egobile eyisicaba (can kanye nomhlahlandlela oyimpumputhe) onezintambo ezinenadi ekugcineni (isithombe 4). Amapayipi angamukelwa nge-stirrup nge-zaukuphotha. Le ndlela isivumela hhayi kuphela ukubhoboza kodwa nokusika ipayipi. Sizovimbela ukunyakaza kwensimbi ye-angle uma kusikiwe esinqunyiwe esinqunyiwe asibeke esisodwa umlenze we-angle. Uma i-engeli imfushane, siyakwamukela qinisa futhi ubhoboze. Sibhola insimbi emfushane eyisicaba ngokuyibopha nge-clamp. (Isithombe 5).
 
qinisa
I-SLIKA 5
 
Umgodi akufanele ujule kakhulu, uma singafuni ukubhoboza i-workpiece. Lokhu kufinyelelwa kalula uma ku-drill bit, ukuze ulungise ukujula komgodi, sibeka eyodwa indandatho esongile, isb. yibophe ku-drill bit umkhawulo. Ngaphambi kokumba izimbobo ezinkulu ezinobubanzi (isb. 8 mm) bamba i-workpiece nge-drill encane encanei-nika (isb. enobubanzi obungu-4 mm). Kulokhu, i-insole enkulu ngeke iwedla Imbobo yezikulufo ibholwa ngaphambili, bese ibhobolwa kamuva okwekhanda lesikulufu. Ukungcwaba ikhanda lesikulufa kwenziwa nge ngokunweba ngaphambili nokujulisa imbobo. Ububanzi i-drill bit yokujulisa umgodi kufanele ibe mkhulu kancane kusukela kububanzi bekhanda lesikulufu.
 
Indawo yokuzivocavoca inethonya elikhulu eminyakeni yabo ubude besikhathi. Isixazululo esilula kunazo zonke se-drill bits yezindlu sisodwa i-lath yokuqina okukhulu, lapho sisebenzisa khona izinsimbi zethu zibheke phezulu izindawo zabo zokuhlala (nakuba lokhu kubhojwa kwezinkuni ayisebenzisi i-cartridge, ukusetshenziswa okukodwa akulimazi).
 
Emigodini enjalo ebhoboziwe, ngemva kokuhlanza nokugcoba kahlei-vanja, sibeka izingcezu zokubhoboza nge-roller ekugcineni imile phansi. Uhlaka lwendlu yokubhoboza akumele lutshekele eceleni, kunconywa ukugoqa i-batten phansi noma ohlangothini ama-racks amathuluzi.
 
Emfanekisweni wesi-6 sizobonisa ama-engeli we-spiral drill ezisetshenziselwa uhlobo oluhlukile lwezinto zokusebenza kanye indlela yokubumba i-blade kanye nengxenye ye-roller.
twist drill amakhona
I-SLIKA 6

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