itshizili

Umsebenzi wetshisel, ukugrumba, ukucwangcisa

Umsebenzi wetshisel

 
Ukwenza kakuhle ekhaya akunakwenzeka ngaphandle kokusebenza ngetshizi ukuba yenziwe ngokupheleleyo. Izidibaniso zamalungu efenitshala ngeamandla e-slots kunye neeplagi, ukufaka izitshixo, ukulungiswa kweehenjisi emnyango akunakwenzeka ukwenza ngaphandle kokusetyenziswa kwe-chisel.
 
Ukusebenza okuphakathi kweentlobo ezahlukeneyo zeetshizi kuyimfuneko malunga nesithathu okanye ezine. Iitshizi ezineprofayile ezintsonkothileyo (i-oblique, i-crescent-shaped, njl.), esetyenziswa ngabakroli kunye abachweli ukwenza ifanitshala enesitayile.
 
I-chisel blade yenziwe ngentsimbi, kwaye isibambo senziwe ngentsimbi ibethelwe kuyo - yenziwe ngomthi. Inxalenye ebaluleke kakhulu ye-chisel yi-blade, ngokuqhelekileyo kwi-angle ye-25 ° (Umfanekiso 1, inxalenye ye-1).
 
Ezona zitshizi zisetyenziswa kakhulu zezi:
 
itshiseli ecaba enecandelo elixande,
 
itshizisi ecaba enemiphetho ebharhileyo,
 
itshizi yomchweli enomgongxo kunye
 
itshiseli ende yokuvula.
 
Isibambo setshiseli kufuneka sinikezelwe ukusuka phezulu ngentsimbi yentsimbi ebandakanya indawo engaphezulu ecuthene kancinane izibambo ukwenzela ukuba umqheba ungaphuki xa ubethwe ngehamile yomthiiyadubula.
 
Incakuba yetshiseli ithe tye (ikwindawo yokutshiza kuphela convex) kwaye kufuneka ibanjwe kwinqwelomoya yokusika. Beveled inxalenye itshizi mayibe ijonge kuloo ndawo ixakiweyo; iphosa ngaphandle (umzobo 1, inxalenye ye-2-5).
 
umsebenzi wetshizi
UMBONISO 1
 
Xa usebenza nge-chisel, nikela ingqalelo kwisalathiso sefiber ngokhuni, kuba ngokubetha ngamandla, iinkuni zinokuqhekeka kwicala lomthiihenna. (umzobo 1, inxalenye 6,7).
 
Xa sifuna ukutshiza ikhefu leplagi, kuqala kufuneka sinqumle inxalenye eqhelekileyo ukuya kwicala lefiber kwaye kuphela ke indawo ehambelana nefiber (fig 1, part 2, 2/a, 3, Z/a). Kufuneka siqale sibeke izinto kwindawo eqinileyo isiseko sokuphepha ukungcangcazela ngexesha lokusebenza, qinisa kangangoko kunokwenzeka ngokusondeleyo kangangoko kwinxalenye enqunyulwayo, ubuncinci ngexesha lomsebenzi impahla kunye nokuhamba. Itshizi kufuneka ibanjwe ngokuqinileyo ngelixa isebenza, hayi ngenxa yentsimbi, kodwa ngenxa yesiphatho, yibambe ngeminwe yakho.
 
Izikwere zinokunqunyulwa ngetshizi ende emxinwa imingxuma enzulu yeplagi. Ukuba iplagi kufuneka idlule kwizinto eziphathekayo ke kungcono uvule umngxuma kumacala omabini ngokutshintshanayo. Ubunzulu bokusika buya kuba buncinci kumacala omabini.
 
Itshisel semicircular isetyenziselwa ukusika izivulo zesetyhula kunye ne ukususa iindawo ezibukhali zokhuni.
 
XNUMX Inxalenye yentsimbi ephambi kwencakuba itsolwe, imbombo-mbo-mbo; kwaye isebenzela "ukufakelwa" kwisibambo. Eyona ndawo ixhaphakileyo Inqaku le-chisel licandelo le-tapered elingaphantsi komqheba. Xa kuloo ndawo itshizili iyaphuka, iba yinto engasebenzisekiyo kumsebenzi oqhubekayo. Ukuba Ukuba i-chisel handle ayiphumelelanga, inokutshintshwa lula. Ukuba ukuba incakuba yonakele, inokulolwa kwakhonakhusela
 
Isibambo silungiswa ngendlela yokuba i-chisel icinezelwe kuqala kwisiphatho esinencam etsolileyo, emva koko bamba isiphatho kwaye usibambe isemoyeni, yibethe ngehamile izihlandlo ezininziinxalenye yenkaba yomqheba.
 

Ukugrumba

Kufuneka ukwazi ukuqhuba! Ebusweni bayo, ukugrumba kubonakala ngathi yeyona nto ilungileyoumsebenzi olula kwi-woodworking, kodwa ekusebenzeni kunjalo kuphela ukuba unesixhobo esifanelekileyo. Eyona nto ifunekayo isixhobo sokugaya imingxuma kwizikhonkwane kunye nezikhonkwane yinaliti yokubhobhoza. Ukubhoboza imingxuma emikhulu, udinga i-drill, kuba ukusebenza kunye iidrill ezinkulu zeenaliti okanye ii-twist drills zifuna ukwenza okuthile (Umfanekiso 2).
 
ukugrumba
UMBONISO 2
 
Kuba singenako ukuba nazo zonke kwiworkshop yethu encinci isixhobo, okona kungcono ukuba sinikezela ngoqheliso lwesandla olunye olwaziwayo phantsi kwegama elithi "American". Le drill inokwenza zombini ngazo zombini ii-spiral nezincinci zokujija. Kuba i-cranking ngenxa yegiya, ayithathi kakhulu umzamo, ukuze nabangaziwayo bakwazi ukuyiphatha. Masiyibeke ipleyiti yokuxhasa phantsi kwezinto esizibhobhozayo, kungakhathaliseki nokuba ukugrumba kwenziwa ngesandla okanye ngenye indlela (račumasithi i-drill bit ekugqibeleni iya kuhamba kwizinto eziphathekayo) kwaye konkebambelela ngokuqinileyo ukuze i-drill ingayibambi into kwaye waqala wayijika.
 
Soloko ukhetha inani eliphantsi leenguqu zokugrumba iinkuni. Ukuba sisebenza nge-drill yombane nakwinani elincinci of revolutions, ukomba kufuneka kuphazamiseke rhoqo 15-20 imizuzwana. Pri ngokugrunjwa ngokukhawuleza, iinkuni zinokutshisa kakhulu kangangokuba zitshintshe umbala kwaye nokubamba umlilo. Isandi esibukhali, umsi ococekileyo imivimbo okanye ivumba lehlathi elitshayo lilumkisa ngalo. Ngamathuba athile ukususa i-bit kwizinto eziphathekayo xa u-drilling ayipholisi kuphela i-drill sele inceda ukukhupha i-chip emngxunyeni. Okubhalwe ngasentla kwekhasiI-chip encinci emngxunyeni inciphisa kakhulu ukusebenza kakuhle ukugrumba.
 
Ngaphambi kokuba uqalise ukugrumba, indawo yokwemba kufuneka ifakwe ngaphakathi kancinci ngesikhonkwane okanye ngenqindi yomngxuma. Oku kuyimfuneko ngakumbi kubaqalayooh Olu phawu lokuqala - ngokwemigaqo yobungcali, "kirner« - inceda ekususeni i-drill ngexesha lokuguqulwa kwayo kokuqala. Masiqaphele ukuba incam ye-drill bit ayikho icala elinye bevelled, kuba kuloo meko kuya kufunyanwa enye enkulu emva kokugrunjwa ukuvulwa kunokuba bekulindelwe.
 
Ukusika ithayile enkulu esetyhula ukusuka kwizinto ezibhityileyo ngokunjalo ibizwa ngokuba kukubhola, nangona luhlobo olwahluke ngokupheleleyo lomsebenzi. Imela yomngxuma ehlengahlengiswayo isebenza njengesixhobo. Kuba "ukugaya" ngale nto ngesixhobo, kuyimfuneko ukuba uqhube ngaphambili umngxuma omncinci kumbindi wokusika  umngxuma kwaye ubeke inqaku lemela apho. Lungisa imela njengoko kufuneka umgama ngokobubanzi bomngxuma esifuna ukuwuvula. i-USA sijika i-blade amaxesha ambalwa kwaye iqala ukuhamba  njengenaliti kwirekhodi yegramophone, kodwa rhoqo kumgama ofanayo ukusuka kwiziko, ukusika ipleyiti (umfanekiso 3).
 
ukusika itayile ejikelezayo
 
UMBONISO 3
 
Ukuba iinkuni kufuneka zingene ngexesha lokubhoboza, ukugaya kufuneka kwenziwe qala ngobuso bezinto eziphathekayo. Ukuvuleka kweli cala kuhlala kukuhle, nokuba nencam ezibukhali ngelixa kwelinye icala i-drill bit ikrazula loo nto xa ibethelwa ngenqindi. Ukuba sigrumba umngxuma wesikrufu nge-countersunk okanye intloko ye-lenticular emva koko i-drill bitkufuneka sivule umngxuma ongentla womngxuma wentloko yesikrufu. Ukuba asinalo i-drill ekhethekileyo yaloo nto, umntu uya kwenza i-drill etyebileyo, umphezulu wayo esasiwugalele ngaphambili ukuya kwi-engile enkulu. Umsebenzi wokomba kufuneka wenziwe ngononophelo ukuze ungangeni nzulu kakhuluowangena kwizinto eziphathekayo.
 
Ukuba umngxuma awudluli kwizinto eziphathekayo, ke i-drill ifakwe ngaphambilikodwa kufuneka siphawule indawo apho sifuna ingene khona izinto eziphathekayo (umzekelo, ipensile enemibala, i-nail polish, njl.). Kuko oko asiyi kunyanzeleka ukuba sisoloko sikhupha i-drill bit kwaye silinganise ubunzulu bomngxuma (Umfanekiso 4).
 
ukuphawula i-drill bit
UMBONISO 4
 

Ukucwangcisa

Ukunqanda ukucwangcisa, ekuphela kwendlela enokwenzeka kukuba sithenga izinto esele zicwangcisiwe. Ekubeni izinto ezinjalo ayinakuhlala ifumana, kwaye rhoqo kufuneka siqhube imiphetho, eyona ingcono kukuba nathi sine grater kwi workshop yasekhaya. Sifuna ezintathu i-grater: enye ye-rough processing (i-grater enkulu), enye ukulungiswa kakuhle kunye ne-grater enye ye-grooves. Kwezi zintathu, singakwazi shiya i-grater enkulu, kuba siya kunqabile ukuba sibe kwimeko ukulungisa iindawo ezinkulu, ezirhabaxa. Kwaye xa kufuneka sisebenza, sinokusebenzisa i-grater yokulungiswa kakuhle. Kakade ke, umsebenzi uya kuthatha ixesha elide.
 
Intliziyo ye-grater ngummese obukhali kakuhle (umzobo 5) kunye ne-rangencakuba. I-engile ye-blade yi-25 °. Imela kufuneka isetyenziswe ngexesha lokusebenza khusela ekubetheni into yentsimbi, umz. isikhonkwane esilityelweyo okanye isiqu sawo singonakalisa i-blade kwaye siyenze ingabi namsebenziefunekayo. (Ukuba siyiphathisa inkosi ukuba iplani siyiphathisa neyethu ngenxa yokungakhathali, isikhonkwane esithile esifihliweyo okanye inxalenye ye-hardware ishiywe kwi-maimpahla, kwisiqwenga ngasinye ixabiso kufuneka lihlawulwe isarha okanye imela yeplani).
 
inkangeleko ecwangcisiweyo
 
UMBONISO 5
 
I-blade ye-grater kufuneka iphuculwe ngokusemandleni ilitye lokusila ukwenzela ukuba i-blade ingabikho, i.e. ewe iyabonakala akalwamkeli ubungqukuva bewhitstone. Sinako ukwenza ukulola ukusebenzisa isixhobo esincedisayo, esenziwe ngebhodi kwi-angle ye-25 °, apho sinokubamba imela yeplaner xa ulola, kuba kunzima kwingcibi enamava ukumisela ukusuka kwiliso i-engile ye-25 °.
 
Emva kokulola imela kwilitye elingqukuva. imiphetho yencakuba kufuneka ilingane kwilitye elisicaba. Akufanele sikhohlwe ukuba umsebenzi we-grater kukunika umphezulu lungisa iibhodi ngokuhle ngokusemandleni, kwaye umgangatho kuphela onokukwenza oko ngaphandle kokuba incakuba ithe tyaba ngokufanelekileyo. Ilitye lokusila elisicaba inokufumaneka kwiivenkile zehardware. Ukulola imela kwindawo emanzi ilitye elisicaba kufuneka lenziwe ngokutsala iblade (njengaku yemela eqhelekileyo) phezu kwelitye ngokujikeleza. Iincam ezibukhali ii-blades kufuneka ke zisuswe ngokusila ukuze zingabikho kwizinto eziphathekayo ushiye amanqaku abukhali xa ucwangcisa. Ngubani oqalayo no kufuneka abe neentloni "ukube" olu lwazi kwinkosi ethile.
 
Ummese weplani ugxininiswe ngentambo yokhuni ekuvuleni kweplaniumntwana. Xa ulungisa, bamba imela kunye ne-wedge ngobhontsi wakho wasekhohlo izandla. Ngemivumbo emincinci yehamile, esiyibambe ngesandla sasekunene, siqhubekemasisuse imela. Oku kufuneka kwenziwe ngobuchule ngelixa ubambe i-grater emoyeni ngentende kunye neminye iminwe yesandla sasekhohlo.
 
Ummese kufuneka unamathele nje kancinci ukusuka kwindawo engezantsi ye-grater, kunye ne-blade kufuneka igungxulwe ngomzantsi weplani. Kungcono ukuba xa ufaka, imela ayifuni ukusuka kwindawo engezantsi ye-grater nonke ukuba ukulungelelaniswa kwemela kuqhutyelwa ngokubetha kancinci kwesando emva koko ukulungisa i-wedge yomthi. Ukuba imela iphume kakhulu, ayikhawulezi umsebenzi kuba ngokulula kakhulu ukubamba imathiriyeli ngokunzulu kakhulu. Kulula imela inceda ukubandakanya ngaphezu kokuyikhupha umva. Kubalulekile kukucofa imela ecaleni kwencakuba ukuthatha echanekileyo isikhundla. Lo msebenzi wenziwa kwakhona "emoyeni" ubambe ngelo xesha, i-grater esandleni sasekhohlo (umfanekiso 6).
 
ukulungiswa kwemela yeplani
UMBONISO 6
 
Xa sifuna ukukhupha imela, ezininzi ziyafuneka betha umva womzimba womcwangcisi ngehamile izihlandlo ezininzi, kunjalo xa iphakanyisiwe.
 
Inxalenye ebalulekileyo ye-grater yi-insert (i-rust breaker), esetyenziselwa imela ilungiswe ngesikrufu. Umsebenzi wofakelo kuku Iqhekeza inkunkuma phambi kwemela, kungenjalo ibiya kuvula inkunkuma. wakhawuleza wakrwitshwa.
 
Umsebenzi wokucwangcisa uqhubeka ngolu hlobo lulandelayo: ngesandla sokunene bamba umva wesiphelo segrater ukuze isithupha silale ngasekhohlo, kunye neminye iminwe ukuya ngasekunene ecaleni kwesikhonkwane; bamba ngesandla sakho sasekhohlomo grater phezulu - isiphelo sangaphambili sesiphatho, kwaye silawula i-gratervol. Isandla sokunene sinika uxinzelelo olwaneleyo lokusebenza. Siyakhuhla ukuhambisa i-grater ngokulinganayo ngasemva nangaphambili kwimivimbo emikhulukodwa, ngaphandle kokucinezela kakhulu kwi-grater. Xa urhoxa ngasemva, ugobe kancinci i-grater kumda, ngaloo ndlela ugcina imela.
 
Kufuneka uhlale ucwangcisa ecaleni kolwalathiso lwemicu yokhuni, kuba hayi nokona kugqwesileyo kokufakwayo kunokugcina ibhodi okanye i-lath kwi-snagukuba ucwangciso lwenziwa ngendlela eyahlukileyo. Akukho mfuneko yokuba uzisole umzamo wokulungelelanisa ibhodi ngokufanelekileyo. Ukuba ulwalathiso lutshintshiwe iifibers, kufuneka sihlale sibeka i-grater kwicala lefiber, ke ngoko siyakuhlala sicwangcisa kwicala elinye kwaye kwelinye icala phantsi kwefiber (Umfanekiso 7).
 
Eyona nto inzima kakhulu kukucwangciswa kwe-cross-sectional surface, kuba imela kufuneka inqumle imicu ngokunqamlezileyo kwaye ke iyawaphula, iyahlukana. Yiyo le nto kunye neziphelo zeebhodi. Kwiimeko ezinjalo kufuneka icwangciswe ukusuka kwincam engaphandle ukuya embindini. Oku akunjalo ngokukodwa umsebenzi olula ngenxa yokuba i-grater ibetha izandla (umfanekiso 7, phakathi).
 
ukucwangcisa
 
UMBONISO 7
 
I-grater yokucoca isetyenziselwa ukulinganisa iindawo ezicwangcisiweyo. Iyintsimbi yentsimbi exande kunye nomphetho obukhali, othi uyibambe ngezandla zombini, uyitsale phezu kwendawo ecwangcisiweyo kwaye ngale ndlela icoca ukungalingani okushiyekileyo.
 
Ukucwangcisa kufuna ukuba i-workpiece yenziwe ngokuqinileyo clamps kunye ukubaleka ngokuqinileyo kwicala planing, kuba xa ngexesha lokucubungula kukho i-jerk enamandla. Ngoko ke, makhe simisele umxholo phezu kwetafile yomsebenzi, ukuba asinayo ibhentshi yokuchwela, kwaye uyifake yibambe ngesandla kwisikrufu. Akufunekanga sihlale phezu kwedesikasifuna itafile ekhazimlisiweyo enemilenze emincinci, kodwa kufuneka masikhethe itafile enzima, egqunyiweyo yasekhitshini. Masichophe etafileni eludongeni okanye, nokuba ngcono, ecaleni kwebhodi ecutshungulwayo. Nangona kunjalo, kule meko, kukho ingozi yokuba isithupha sesandla sethu sasekhohlo siya kwaphulwa ngenxa ye-inetia, iyaxinga phakathi kodonga kunye nencam.
 
Isisombululo esisebenzayo: masiyibeke phakathi kwetafile yomsebenzi kunye wakha i-hutch egqunywe ngelaphu elishinyeneyo ukuya emacaleni etafile kwaye iimpuphu azingqubani ngaphandle kokubetha udonga kancinci. Ukusebenza ngoku siqinisa isiqwenga ngeeclamps kwitafile egqunywe ngengubovol. Singakwazi nokubeka enye encinci phakathi kwemiphetho yesokethi kunye nodonga iqhekeza lebhodi (Umfanekiso 7, ezantsi).
 
Ukuba sicwangcisa i-cross-section of fibers, i-workpiece masiyibambe kwiimangel ukuze imicu ihambe ngokuthe nkqo. Vala izandla mazingabi yiyo nayiphi na into enokubakho ukwenzakalisa isandla sethu.
 
Rasps kunye neefayile zokucwangcisa
 
Ngezixhobo zokufakela kunye nokucwangcisa, umphezulu unokuba ukulungiswa kweenkuni ngaphandle kolwazi olukhethekileyo. Kule izincedisi ziquka rasp kunye ifayile iinkuni. Inxalenye iyasetyenzwa kufuneka ilungiswe kubude bengqiniba (umfanekiso 8). Sibamba ifayile Ngesandla sasekhohlo kwincam, kunye nesandla sokunene kwisiphatho, kwaye usicinezele kwinto ecwangciswayo, sitsalela emva naphambili ngolu hlobo ukuba bonke ubude befayile budlula phezu komphezulu ukuze bukhazimlisweyenza. Xa ulinganisa iindawo zomphezulu kunye nemivimbo emfutshane ngefayile bakhokelela ekujoliseni. Ngokuqhelekileyo zigqitywe ngefayile imiphetho, imingxuma egrunjiweyo, ukusonga, ukugqiba kunye nokucubungula icandelo elinqamlezileyo lemicu. Kwaye apha kukho ithuba lokuba iqhekeza elincinci okanye elikhulu lomthi liyaphuka. Ukuba iqhutywe iqhekeza elibanjwe phakathi kwamaplanga amabini afanayo, linciphisa skunye nethuba lokuqhekeza imiphetho.
 
ukulungiswa kweleyile yokucwangcisa kunye nokufakwa
UMBONISO 8
 
I-resin yokhuni kunye ne-shavings encinci ivala ngokukhawuleza amazinyo iifayile, kwaye oko kunzima ukucoca. Enye indlela yokucoca iifayile kusetyenziso lwebrashi yocingo. Nangona kunjalo, ibrashi yocingo yonakalisa amazinyo efayile, kwaye ukucoca akusekho i-XNUMX%. BoEnye indlela yokucoca kukucwina ifayile emanzini atshisayo kwaye emva koko icocwa ngebrashi eqhelekileyo. Ngale ndlela, nathi siyasuswala kunye nokuchetywa kwezinto zeplastiki. Emva kokucoca okunjalo, ifayile kufuneka sosule kwaye somise, kungenjalo iya kuhlwa. Ukuba ifayiliwe asiyi kuyisebenzisa ixesha elide, sinokuyirhuqa Ngomaleko obhityileyo weoli, esiya kuyisusa phambi kokuba siphinde siyisebenzise ngokufaka inkunkuma ethile.

Amanqaku anxulumeneyo