i-vernier

Ukuqukuqela kokwenziwa kwezixhobo ezininzi. Konke malunga nokumakisha kunye nokulayisha

Ikhosi yobugcisa yokuqala
 
Le bhlog yenzelwe abantu abangezongcali, yiyo loo nto siya kuzama ukuphepha uhlalutyo olunzulu lwethiyorimatranje, kwaye siya kunika iingcebiso ezisebenzayo kunye nezisombululo ezisebenzayo. Nangona kunjalo, kukho ezinye iziphumo ezivunyiweyo, ezithiyori inzululwazi zobugcisa, kodwa azinakuphetshwa. Ingakumbi ngenxa yokuba, ezihambelana ngokusondeleyo nokuziqhelanisa kwaye zibaluleke kakhulu. Elula, yakha »kwisikolo samabanga aphantsi" kwisayensi yezobugcisa. Phakathi kwabo ngowona mlinganiselo ubalulekileyo, ngoko igama elithi "geometer" lisuka apha (esalatha kwingcali, ekwaziyo ukulinganisa ngokuchanekileyo u-roukusetyenziswa komhlaba).
 
Umfundi uya kudibana nopozo amaxesha amaninzikunjalo nje:
 
linganisa kathathu,
sika kanye!
 
Umsebenzi ochanekileyo kunye nempumelelo ngaphandle kokusebenzisa umgaqo wangaphambili inokwenzeka kuphela ngamabona-ndenzile.
 
Imfuneko esisiseko yomlinganiselo ochanekileyo lulwazi olulungileyo izixhobo zokulinganisa, ukhetho lwayo olufanelekileyo kunye nokusetyenziswa kwayo ukuba kukho enye, okanye ukutshintshwa kwayo okwaneleyo ngomnye (Umfanekiso 1).
 
izixhobo zokulinganisa
UMBONISO 1
 
Imitha isetyenziswa kakhulu ukulinganisa ubude obuncinci kwindibano (umzobo 1a). Yenziwe ngomthi okanye isinyithi. Xa ulinganisa izinto ezinkulu, ezinde, umlinganiselo kufuneka wenziwe ngononophelo yenza, ngenxa yokuba umgangatho ongonelanga (ukuvulwa) ngoiindawo kuphela zemitha zinikwa umlinganiselo omfutshane.
 
Ifomu elungisiweyo yemitha yiteyiphu yokulinganisa intsimbi (Umfanekiso 1b). Inenzuzo yokuba isiphelo esinye sigotywe phantsi kwi-angle ye-90 °, ngoko inokuxhonywa ekupheleni kwecandelo elilinganisiweyo kwaye ngaloo ndlela mnye kuphela umntu onokulinganisa ubude be 1-2 yeemitha.
 
Ukufumana imilinganiselo echanekileyo, kufuneka sisebenzise i-caliper (Fig 1c). Ingasetyenziselwa ukulinganisa ngaphandle, ngaphakathi kunye nobunzulu ilinganisa ukuya kuthi ga kwiidecimeters ezininzi. UNonius (emvasliding scale) umvumela ukuba alinganise ngokuchaneka kwe-deikhulu lemilimitha. Ineemilimitha ezilithoba eziphambili iliso elicandekileyo Kwicandelo le-zero le-vernier, sifunda amanani apheleleyo iimilimitha, kwaye kwindawo apho ulwahlulo kwi-vernier luhambelana (okanye zezona zikufutshane) kunye namanye amacandelo e-millimeter, respamashumi eemilimitha ezikhohlisayo.
 
I-micrometer isetyenziselwa imilinganiselo echanekileyo kakhulu (Umfanekiso 1d). Beka into esifuna ukuyilinganisa phakathi yemihlathi eqinileyo yeprobe yokulinganisa ye-micrometer kwaye sijika i-buibhafu ye micrometer de iprobes yokulinganisa cinezela kancinci kwiukuphunyezwa kwetyala. Emva koko kwisahlulo somgca kwi-spindle sifunda (isabonakala) amaxabiso eemilimitha kunye nakwi-vernier ikhulu lemilimitha.
 
Izixhobo zomculo ziphantse zilingane ngokubaluleka njengezixhobo zokulinganisaiiment ezisebenzela ukulungiswa okanye ukulawula (Umfanekiso 2). Najeyona nto ibalulekileyo phakathi kwabo ikona - winkle (umfanekiso 2e). Le isixhobo sinemilo yeleta L, i.e. indawo ethe nkqo yeyesiseko iqhotyoshelwe kwii-engile ezichanekileyo. Amaxesha ngamaxesha kufuneka kukulawula ukuchaneka kwe-engile elungileyo. Yenziwe njengesuka umthi kunye nentsimbi. Isiseko sayo sibanzi kunomphethoumlenze wento ubekwe njengerula.
 
izixhobo zokulungisa nokulawula
UMBONISO 2
 
I-angle ehlengahlengiswayo, isixhobo esisetyenziselwa umlinganiselo wokuthambeka kunye nolawulo lwe-engile (Figure 2f) ikwanjalo isixhobo esibalulekileyo. Ingasetyenziselwa ukuhambisa "ii-angles", kunye nee-engilerom ebekwe ecaleni kwesi sixhobo inokulinganiswa amaxabiso eengile. Incam yolwimi yesi sixhobo yenziwe ngoomatshini ikwi-engile ye-45 degrees, ngoko ungayisebenzisa kulula ukunyenyisa eyona engile isiqingatha sasekunene esetyenziswayo. Isenokusetyenziswa ukulinganisa ubunzulu nobubanzi.
 
Intsimbi ethi "še" isetyenziselwa ukulinganisa ngokuchanekileyo ubudeendala" (umfanekiso 1g) isikali, enenzuzo yokuba ubude obumiselweyo bunokusetyenziswa amaxesha amaninzi. Yiyo loo nto ibizwa ngokuba nangekhampasi yokulinganisa. Xa umlinganiselo omde kufuneka wahlulwe kumacandelo amancinci aliqela sesona sixhobo silungileyo.
 
Isidluliseli sekhampasi sokulungisa imilinganiselo yangaphandle iyafana (umfanekiso 1h). Ukulinganisa kunye nokulungisa amanyathelo angaphakathi, i.e. ukuvulwa kunikwa ikhampasi efanayo, evuleke ngokupheleleyo kuphela (umfanekiso 1i). I-parallel isetyenziselwa ukulinganisa, ukufaka kunye nokumakisha ubude irula (umfanekiso 2j). Njengekona, inokudityaniswa kuyo into esebenzayo. Ngokukhupha kunye nokulungisa ithebhu de unqwenele imilinganiselo kusetyenziswa isikhonkwane sokumakisha sinokuzotywa ngaxeshanye umgca.
 
Ekugqibeleni, kubaluleke kakhulu ukuba nerula yentsimbi ecaleni kwerula yokhuni okanye yeplastiki (ayinakunqunyulwa, umzekelo ngommese, kuba kukho umngcipheko wokusika irula), ngenaliti ukumakisha kunye nokucutshungulwa kwesinyithi nge-punch, i.e. Kirner.
 
Inkqubo yokwenza isixhobo sokulinganisa esinye kunye nezicelo ezininzi
 
Ezi zixhobo zokulinganisa kuphela ezibalulekileyo, kodwa ukuba siyazilahla, asiyi kuba neshishini elingagqitywanga ngenxa yokungabikho kwezixhobo zokulinganisa. Ukuba asinayo moamandla okuzibonelela ngezixhobo ezininzi zokulinganisa, siya kuyenza ngokwethu ngokulula nangexabiso eliphantsi ukwenza iyuniyoniisixhobo sokulinganisa i-zal, enokwenziwa ngaso imisebenzi yokulinganisa ezisixhenxe (Umfanekiso 3).
 
isixhobo sokulinganisa jikelele
UMBONISO 3
 
Kufuneka sifumane igrinder ye-angle engqindilili ukuya kuthi ga kwi-360 ° ukusuka kwi-plexiglass (celluloid) kunye nerula enye ukusuka wemathiriyeli efanayo. Ukuqala kwi-engile esezantsi -90 ° (270 °) ukusukaukulinganisa i-45 ° kumacala omabini, emva koko kufuneka inqunywe icandelo ukusuka kumacala alinganisiweyo ukuya kumbindi weprotractor. NgoLwesithathuSincamathelisa irula kwikona ye-cut-out efunyenwe ngale ndlela ye-90 ° iyahlula ibe ngamacandelo amabini alinganayo kwaye iyenze ilungele umlinganiselo i-engile ye-45 °. Ngaphambili, kwicala lasekunene leprotractor ngasentlasikwabona i-cutout encinci ene-engile ye-140 °.
 
Uluhlu lwemisebenzi yemveliso ngolu hlobo lulandelayo: 1. Sinqumle ukusuka kwiprotractor inxalenye ye-2x45 °. 2. Umphetho werula kwicala seta ulwahlulo lwe-zero ukuze luhambelane neziko iprotractor. 3. Siyinqumle i-protractor kwisigxina esipheleleyo irula. 4. Gcoba irula kwiprotractor. 5. Sika icandelo ye 140°. 6. Gqoka imingxuma. 7. Lola isiphelo serula ukuya kwi-15 °.
 
Isiphelo serula kumaxabiso amakhulu amanani eesentimitha chola kwi-engile ye-15 °. Siyinqumle phakathi kwimilo ye-wedge kunye kwelinye icala, senza i-millimeter isahlulo sokulinganisa ububanzi. Okanye, ukulawula ububanzi be-drill, sibhoba imingxuma Irula (umz. 2,3,4,5 mm njl.). Umphetho werula, kwicala lesiqalo ulwahlulo lweesentimitha, kufuneka sibeke ikona embindiniumlinganiselo. Kwinqanaba le-45 ° cut, sinqumle inxalenye kwiprotractor ukuze umgca wokusika uhambelane nalo lonke ulwahlulo kwi irula. Emva koko, kufuneka unamathele umbusi kuphela kwiprotractor kunye isixhobo sokulinganisa jikelele silungile.
 
Olu ncedo luncinci lunokwenziwa izihlandlo ezisixhenxeimicimbi yobuqu. Ukongeza kokumakisha imiphezulu yee-battens, iibhodi, ikhadibhodi njl. kwi-engile ye-45 °, ukuphawula ekupheleni kwerula singenza kwi-engile ye-15 °. Umsebenzi weProtractor we I-180 ° kukumiselwa kwee-engile. Ngokujikelezisa izixhobo esizifumanayo irula encinci. Inotshi ye-140 ° kwicala isebenzela i-conkwi-engile yeengcebiso ze-drill bits. I-engile ye-140 ° inkulu kunomndililiye-engile yokuthambekela kweengcebiso ze-drill bits, ukuze ii-engile ezincinci xa ndilinganisa, ndinokuqikelela malunga.
 
Olu ncedo lunokusetyenziselwa ukufumana iziko kwimeko yezinto ezijikelezayo. Ngokuguqula i-90-120 °, i ngokudweba imigca emi-2-3 kunokwenzeka ukumisela iziko. SantiUkwahlula kwemitha kwirula ethe tye kunokwenziwa ngokuzimeleyo isetyenziselwa ukulinganisa ubude, ngelixa i-millimeter division in ukusika okuphakathi (okanye imingxunya enobubanzi obukhulayo) sebenzela ukulinganisa ububanzi bezinto eziqengqelekayo.
 
Malunga nokumakisha
 
Umgca ozotywe ngepensile okanye inaliti kufuneka ihlale i-po ukulinganisa, nokuba kuncinane ecaleni lesiqwenga esinqunyulweyo. Inxalenye leyo inkunkuma kufuneka ichithwe. Sebenzisa ukuphawula ukhunisisebenzisa ipensile ekhethekileyo yokhuni, oyifunayo lola kodwa ungayiloli incam. Ipeni yokubhala ingasetyenziswa nayo.
 
Xa inqaku liphawulwe, hayi umgca, ukumakisha yenziwe ngemigca emibini enqamlezileyo. Imigca yokulinganisa izotyiwe kwiqhekeza eliza kucutshungulwa, kufuneka libe lide kancinane kunobude obufunekayo amaxabiso kwaye apho imilinganiselo emibini ichukumisa, iyadibana enye okwesibini, apho imigca inqumla khona.
 
Ekugqibeleni, nantsi, kwakhona, umgaqo oyintloko: ukulinganisa kathathu ...
 
Masiphinde sazi itemplate yokusika kwi-engile (umfanekiso 2k) evumela ukuba iileyile zenziwe ngaphandle komlinganiseloukusika okanye ukusika kwi-engile ye-15 °, 30 °, 45 ° kunye ne-60 °. Sisixhobo efana nebhokisi evulekileyo enemijelo emacaleni. Ngabasemzini kuye ukusuka kwiplanga eliqinileyo apho bakhoyo, emva kokucakwa okuchaneke kakhuluukuhlafuna, iigrooves ezisikiwe kwiikona ezidityaniswe kakhulubavuthela amaxilongo. Iqhekeza eliza kucutshungulwa libekwe kwindawo yokuvula phakathi kwesixhobo, ukulungiswa kunye nokusika ngaphandle kobunzima kwi-angle oyifunayoukwaphuka.
 
Izibalo ezintathu ezifanele ukuqwalaselwa: 1 intshi yesiNgesi, ityuwa=2,54 cm; 1 unyawo=30cm; Iponti e-1 = 450 g.
 
Malunga nomthwalo
 
Xa sele siyayazi into esifuna ukuyenza, kwaye besiyazi kufuneka kwakhona simisele imilinganiselo, kufuneka kwakhona sicinge ngohlobo umthwalo into esiyenzayo kuya kufuneka imelane. Yiyo loo nto kuyimfuneko ukuba siziqhelanise namagama asisiseko iimeko zomthwalo. Okungakumbi, kuba kwiimeko ezininzi umthwalo uxhomekeke ekukhethweni kwezinto eziphathekayo (umfanekiso 4).
 
iintlobo zemithwalo
UMBONISO 4
 
Uxinzelelo (Umfanekiso 4a) unokuba nesigxina, okt. ngokusisigxina (ethi, umzekelo, isebenza kwiintsika ezixhasayo ezibamba uphahla ukwakhiwa kwendlu) okanye eguquguqukayo, evela kwisenzo samandla ngexesha lokunyakaza (umzekelo, umphumo wehamile kwi-rivet Okanye umphumo wesibini iimoto phezu kwenye ngexesha lokungqubana). 
 
Ukukhupha, ukukrazula (umfanekiso 4b) yimpembelelo echasene nepricofa. Umzekelo oqhelekileyo woku kukubonakala kwamandla entambo kwi ukuqinisa. Kukwanjalo nakwi-screw ebambe i-fitting isango, ogama nut siqinisa ngakumbi nangakumbi ngesipanela.
 
I-twist (Figure 4c) isebenza kwisitshixo sesango xa isenza siyijika kwi-lock, okanye kwi-screwdriver (i-screwdriver) xa ujika isikrufu somthi sibe ngumthi oqinileyo. Ukujija kunokubonwa rhoqoizikrufu phantsi komthwalo ogqithisileyo.
 
Ukubambisa (Umfanekiso 4d). Umzekelo ocacileyo we-buckling ngu Ukujija kwekrele ngohlangothi lwekrele, xa ihlaba ngencam yekrele isuti ekhuselayo yomchasi. Ukubhomboloza ngokuqhelekileyo kwenzeka xa intonga ende ebhityileyo ilayishwa eziphelweni, umz. imeko yokuxhasa imiqadi yesakhiwo sophahla, ukuba ngaba Imiqadi ebhityileyo (amandla afanayo asebenza kwicala elingezantsi lomqadi njenge ukusuka kwicala eliphezulu). Kubalulekile, emva koko, ukuqaphela oku: rhoqo umntu unoluvo lokuba imikhosi yenza kuphela kwicala elinye, kodwa ngenxa ye ukuxhathisa inkxaso, basebenza ngokwenene ukusuka kwelinye icala ngokunjalo. Ukuba, umzekelo, sibopha isiphelo sentambo emthini kunye nesinye isiphelo itsalwa liqela elinye, amandla anjalo asebenza entanjeni ngokungathi endaweni yomthi, kukho elinye iqela elitsala intambo.
 
Ukugoba (Umfanekiso 5e). Xa amandla esebenza kwicala elinye imiqadi ethe tyaba enesinye isiphelo esibotshelelweyo, uyabangela ukugoba. Ukugoba kwe-beam kunokuncitshiswa kakhulu ngokukhetha iprofayile enqamlezileyo efanelekileyo. Rhoqo siyabona ukuba ukugoba kweshiti lentsimbi kunokwenziwa kuphela ngaphakathi imeko xa isiphelo esinye sigxininiswe ngokuqinileyo kwaye esinye isiphelo sisebenza ngamandla agobileyo. Umzobo 6 ubonisa ukuxhathisa kweiiprofayili zomntu ngamnye zokhuni kunye nentsimbi yokubopha kunye nokugoba. Elona lincinci ukuchasana kuboniswa nge-slat ephezulu, eyisicaba, kunye neyona nto iphakamileyo yintsimbi umbhobho kunye nomqadi wokhuni, owenziwe ngokuhambelana nomfanekiso ongezantsi.
 
ukuchasana nokhuni kunye nesinyithi kwi-buckling kunye nokugoba
UMBONISO 6
 
Cheba (Umfanekiso 5f). Owona mzekelo udumileyo wokucheba ngu ukusika ishidi lesinyithi kunye nesikere. Kwaye iirivethi zivezwe ekuchebeni ezinokuthi zinqumle xa iipleyiti ezi-riveted ziphantsi kwempembelelo amandla okuxinana okanye acinezelayo ashukuma ngokusondelelana. Kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukulayisha okumileyo kunye nokuguquguqukayo. Nye ngumthwalo ukuba sime ngononophelo kwi hook kunye 70 kg yethuubuso, kwaye okwesibini xa sitsiba kuyo ukusuka kubude beemitha ezi-2. Izinto ezivezwe kumthwalo oguqukayo kufuneka ubukhulu ngamandla ngakumbi.
 
ukugoba nokucheba
UMBONISO 5

Amanqaku anxulumeneyo