ukuyila

Ukuyila linqanaba lokuqala lomsebenzi

Nantoni na yokwenza okanye ukulungisa, isigaba sokuqala somsebenzi, kungekuphela nje ngolandelelwano lwamaxesha kodwa nangokubaluleka, kunjalo ukuyila. Amaxesha amaninzi esi sigaba somsebenzi senziwa kuphela iingcinga. Impumelelo ngolu hlobo loyilo "kuphela entloko" inokulindelwa kwimisebenzi elula. Ngeminye entsonkothileyo iiprojekthi, kuyimfuneko ukuyila, kumzobo okanye umzobo. Ngaba kwaye omnye umntu oyakuqulunqa, kwaye ngumsebenzi wakho landela nje iprojekthi.
 
Indlela yokwenza imizobo yobugcisa, ukuphawula okusetyenzisiweyo, imigca, zimiselwa JUS-imigangatho, leyo, kunye nabanye abaninzi, corrodeungafumana idatha enjalo, umz. kwincwadi yomzobo wobugcisa nguTodor Pantelić, Belgrade, okanye umzobo woBugcisa ngu UBranka Kovača, eZagreb.
 
Isicatshulwa sethu, ngokuqinisekileyo, asinakuthelekiswa nesinye isethi yemigaqo. Sinendawo kuphela kwezona zibalulekileyoakusiyo imimiselo evela kumzobo wobugcisa (umfanekiso 1).
 
imimiselo evela kumzobo wobugcisa
UMBONISO 1
 
Okokuqala, kufuneka sizobe imizobo ngendlela ethile imilinganiselo (umzobo 1b), okt. ukubonisa into ekumzobo kuncitshiswe okanye kwandiswe ngokunxulumene neyokuqala.
 
Umzekelo: umlinganiselo M=1:5 uthetha intonga ubude bayo buyi-850 mm, buncitshiswe kahlanu kumzobo izotyiwe, i.e. 170 mm (kodwa siya kusebenzisa i-850 ekuphakameni). Mna ngubani izinto ezincinci, umzekelo i-axis yewotshi, siya kukhulisa kumzobo, yithi, kwisikali se-10:1 okanye 2:1. Ukwandiswa ngeisikali "reversed" sikwatsho, umz. M=2:1.
 
Kwiphepha elinye, masizobe iziqwenga kuphela kwelinye Izikali, kwaye kwikona esezantsi ekunene phawula isikali. Ukuba iinkcukacha zinezikali ezahlukeneyo, ecaleni kwenkcukacha nganye kwisithetha isikali esifanelekileyo.
 
Imilinganiselo ecetyiswayo
 
Isicwangciso somgangatho 1:100 - 1:50 (incitshiswe kumzobo)
 
Isicwangciso sokwakha 1:20 - 1:10 (incitshiswe kumzobo)
 
Ngaphakathi 1:10 - 1:5 (ngoko umzobo uyancitshiswa)
 
Oomatshini abancinci 1:5 - 1:2 (bancitshiswe kumzobo)
 
Izixhobo zesandla 1:2 - 1:1 (incitshisiwe kumzobo)
 
Iinkcukacha ezintle oomatshini 1:1 - 1:2 (yandisiwe kumzobo)
 
Abenzi beewotshi ukulunga 2:1 - 5:1 (yandisiwe kumzobo)
 
Imilinganiselo 1:5, 1:50 okanye 5:1 kufuneka isukasiyabaleka, kuba kunzima ukubala kwakhona ngentliziyo kwaye asinikwa inani elijikelezayo. Kwinqanaba le-1: 5, umzekelo, ibha yobude I-763 mm kufuneka izotywe yi-152,6 mm kwaye loo mlinganiselo kufuneka ube pretkufanelekile ukubala. Kwimeko yesikali se-1:10, ubude obuzotyiweyo iya kuba yi-76,3 mm kwaye iya kufumaneka ngaphandle kobunzima.
 
Imilinganiselo ebonisiweyo kufuneka ihlale iyimilinganiselo yokwenene yento kungakhathaliseki ubungakanani babo kumzobo (ngenxa yesikali).
 
Sizoba imiphetho ebonakalayo ngemigca engqingqwa, kunye nokuphakama ngemigca emincinci kunye nemigca encedisayo ngexesha lokulinganisa (ukuze imilinganiselo ingachukumisi iindawo eziphambili zento). Umgca wamachaphaza ubonisa ezingabonakaliyo imiphetho (ethi, xa ijongwe ngaphambili, iwe emva kwento tasibonakali kuthi).
 
Umgca odayiweyo onechaphaza phakathi kwekhefu ngalinye Ichaza i-axis ye-symmetry yemizimba ejikelezayo kubude bomzimba (on umzekelo, umgca ophakathi wobude bemibhobho, i-shafts, njl.) kunye nemigca icandelo, ukuba umzimba ubunokusikwa kusetyenziswa inqwelomoya yentelekelelo sika ukuqaqambisa ezo nkcukacha zangaphakathi ezi ayifikeleleki kwamehlo, umzekelo umngxuma ogrunjiweyo. Uba nomfanekiso ngqondweniumlenze wecandelo uphawulwe ngemigca yediagonal (iqanduselwe). KraImigca ebonisa imiphakamo iphela ngeentolo ezithi zezemigca encedisayo.
 
Umgca odayiweyo onamachaphaza amabini phakathi kwekhefu ngalinye ibonisa iindawo zokugoba. Umzekelo, kunye neentsimbiAmaphepha e-dova kufuneka agotywe kwiindawo eziphawulwe ngolu hlobo. KwiUmsonto kwi-screw uphawulwe ngomgca omnye obhityileyo ihambelana nomgca ongqindilili ukuze umgca ongqindilili uvele ngaphandlehayi yasemzini. Kwi-nut, umgca wangaphakathi unzima kwaye ubonisa ububanzi bomngxuma, ngelixa intambo iphawulwe ngomgca omncinci.
 
Kwenzeka ukuba andinakuyeka kwizifundo ezithile yonke imilinganiselo. Kwiimeko ezinjalo kuyimfuneko ukunikela uqikelelo lwezifundo, o.t. imbono evela kumacala amaninzi, kunokwenzeka icandelo okanye icandelo kunye noqikelelo (Umfanekiso 2 inxalenye ephezulu). 
 
uqikelelo lwento
UMBONISO 2
 
Xa uzobe uqikelelo lomntu ngamnye ("iimbono") ezimiselweyo lulungiselelo "elichasayo". Oku kuthetha ukuba umbindi okhethiweyo Intelekelelo (imbono ephambili) iza embindini. Into eboniweyo ekunene, izotywe ukusuka kwicala lasekhohlo lengqikelelo esembindini. Into ebonwa kwicala lasekhohlo, okanye ejongwe ezantsi, izotywe ngasentla njl. (Umfanekiso 1d).
 
Sizama ukuzoba iingqikelelo ezimbalwa kangangokoI (cut), kodwa masingalibali ukuba ukungabikho kwayo nayiphi na iingqikelelo eziyimfuneko zikhokelela ekudalweni kwe-scraper. Oku kuyasebenza kunye noluhlu. Umgaqo kukuba wonke umlinganiselo ofunekayo kufuneka ube ibonisiwe kumzobo, kodwa masingaphindi sirekhode. Kote ziphindwaphindwa kukhuseleko zidla ngokuphikisana kwaye zingunobangela ingxaki (umfanekiso 3).
 
uluhlu
 
UMBONISO 3
 
Imilinganiselo ephambili kufuneka ihlale inikwe umzobo. Ngepriubukho beminye imilinganiselo, kubalulekile ukuba kukho ithuba lokuba imilinganiselo kwiinkcukacha nokuba ziyimfuneko na ekwenzeni loo nto. Ukuba kunokwenzeka, amanyathelo kufuneka aboniswe ukususela ekupheleni, okt. edge. Mnazibotshelelwe kunye zinokukhokelela ngokulula iimpazamo ngexesha lokudalwa kwesihloko. Kubalulekile ukuba imilinganiselo ingenziwa lawula ngesikali kungekuphela nje kumzobo kodwa nakwinto (umfanekiso 4)
 
imilinganiselo kumzobo
UMBONISO 4
 
Kwimizobo yomatshini, imilinganiselo inikwe ngamamilimitha, na umzobo wokwakha kunye neshishini lomthi ngeesentimitha, nakwizicwangciso zomhlaba ngeemitha. Amanani, abonisa imilinganiselo ibhalwe ngaphezulu kwemigca ethe tye, ebonisa ukuphakama, kwaye kwicala lasekhohlo, xa zithe nkqo, kwi-engile ye-90 ° ngokunxulumene nezidlulileyo. Amanani afakwe kakuhle, ngokucacileyo kwaye iyafundeka kwaye ngendlela echazwe ngasentla ukuze imiphakamo ethe nkqo Ndiyakwazi ukufunda ngentloko yam ijonge kancinci ngasekhohlo (Umfanekiso 1e).
 
Uzenzele imisebenzi akafane usebenzise ileyibhile ukunyamezelana - ukutenxa okuvunyelweyo kwento ukusuka kokufanelekileyohayi, umlinganiselo. Uphawu olubekwe emva komzobo womlinganiselo kunye nenani elincinci ngasentla ilumkisa ukuba imilinganiselo yento eyenziweyo inako ibe nkulu okanye ibengaphantsi kunoko kubonisiwe. (Umzekelo 204+0 kuthetha ukuba owona mlinganiselo unokuba mncinci, kodwa ungabi mkhulu). Ukuba kunjalo ibonise 204 -1+ 0,5, umbandela unokuba ngowona mkhulu isiqingatha semilimitha, okanye imilimitha enye mfutshane.
 
Kwakhona kubalulekile ukubonisa umgangatho wonyango lomhlaba. I-Slash S (~) ebekwe kumgca wecontour ibonisa ukuba umphezulu awulungiswanga, kunye nomqondiso N ibonisa icala lehlabathi (jonga emazantsi omfanekiso 2).
 
Ifomathi yokuzoba inokuba nobukhulu bephepha lokubhala umatshini, isiqingatha sobukhulu, kabini okanye izihlandlo ezininzi ubukhulu (iphepha isongwe ibe ngamacandelo amabini kwimeko yokuqala nakweyesibini umzobo yenziwa ngokubeka amaphepha amabini okanye ngaphezulu ecaleni kwelinye, ukufumana ifomathi ethile). Amanqaku afunyenwe ngolu hlobo iifomathi zezi: iphepha lokuchwetheza i-A4, isiqingatha A5, kabini AZ njl.
 
Unobumba u-R okanye u-r phambi komzobo ubonisa iradiyasi yokusangqa. Ububanzi becandelo lesetyhula (umzekelo, kwimeko yemibhobho, iintonga, njl. njl.) ngomqondiso Ø ibekwe phambi komzobo. Umzekelo, umlinganiselo kwidiski enerediyasi ye-R16 nayo inokuphawulwa ngayo Ø 32, kodwa ngokomlinganiselo ekunokulinganiswa ngawo ngokulula ngakumbi.
 
Sisebenzisa ipensile yegraphite echothiweyo xa sizoba okanye ipeni yebhola enencam emide. I-blade yerula kufuneka iphumle ephepheni, kunye ne-accessory leyo siyigcina ime nkqo ecaleni kwerula sikrwela umgca. Ukuba sifuna ukwenza umzobo ngeinki, ke iinwele isiphelo serula kufuneka singalali ephepheni kodwa sibe kunye icala eliphezulu, ukwenzela ukuba ishawari ingayi kuthambisa umzobo. Prepoiyalelwe ukuba wenze isakhelo 1 cm ukusuka kwiphepha lomzobo imiphetho yamagqabi.
 
Ityhubhu okanye imilimitha ingasetyenziselwa ukuzobaiphepha letar, apho banokutsalwa ngokulula nangesandla samahhala imigca enqamlezileyo kwaye izotywa ngokulula kwisikali. Yile nto siphezu kwayo ngoku ufunde malunga nomzobo wobugcisa kuphela sisiseko sokulungileyo ukuyila. Xa uyila, akwanelanga nje ukubaulwazi lwemithetho, ukukwazi ukuqiqa kuza phambilikunye nokuzenzela inyathelo. Kukho kwakhona imithetho embalwa yegolide. Enye yazo kukulungelelanisa isicelo kunye nomthamo wokuthwala we-maizinto eziphathekayo, ukukhetha ubunzima obufanelekileyo kunye nexabiso lezinto eziphathekayo.
 
Ukuba sele sicinge ukuba sifuna ntoni kwaye siyifuna njani ukwenza, makhe sijonge izinto eziyimfuneko. Iincwadana zisinika zona uncedo oluyimfuneko kodwa alwanelanga ekukhetheni izixhobo, kuba bacinga ukuba kukho ithuba elifanelekileyo lonikezelo lwamandlaukuthandana Nangona kunjalo, sinyanzelekile ukuba sizilawule ngokwesitokhwe sabo semathiriyeli, okanye kwiimeko ezininzi ngokokhetho olubi lwezinto ezingafanelekanga, ezithi basinika iivenkile.
 
Siza kuzazi izinto ezibalulekileyo icaciswe kwizahluko ezichaza umsebenzi weplanga, iintsimbi kunye neeplastiki. Yiyo loo nto siza kuhlala apha kwezinye iimpawu ezibalulekileyo jikelele ezifana:
 
- amandla ezinto eziphathekayo anqunywe ngokuhambelana nawo eyona ndawo ibuthathaka; iqhina embindini we-lath, inxalenye ethambileyo yentsimbi imithombo, isitena esinomkhenkce sekholamu, yenza yonke into ibe buthathaka.
 
- ulwalathiso lweenkozo emthini, imilo yecandelo elinqamlezayo, indlela yokuxina, indlela yokuxhasa ichaphazela kakhulu ukomelela kweziqalelo.
 
- amandla ezinto eziphathekayo ayanda ngokunyuka kwe-transverse icandelo. Izinto ezityebileyo zinamandla angakumbi. Phakathiiqela, kwindawo efanelekileyo enqamlezayo kunye ne-po encinciukunyuka kwamacandelo ahlukeneyo (kungoko ubunzima obuphantsi kunye nexabiso izinto eziphathekayo zinokuba namandla afanayo okanye aphezulu. Umzekelo I-U-profile yentsimbi yentsimbi iphantse ibe namandla afanayo kunye nomqadi imilinganiselo efanayo ngeprofayile epheleleyo.
 
- izinto zomntu ngamnye kuxhomekeke kuhlobo kunye nolwalathiso lwe-opimithwalo inamandla ahlukeneyo.
 
Amandla nawo axhomekeke: ubushushu (phantsi kwempembelelo yayo ezinye iiplastiki ziyathamba), amanzi (ukuhlasela ikakhulu izinto zokwakha), kubanda (inkonkxa iyenza iqine kakhulu kwaye eethe-ethe), iikhemikhali ezinobundlobongela (zichaphazela ngokuyingozi phantse zonke izinto zokwakha) njl.
 
Konke oku kufuneka sikuthathele ingqalelo xa siyilakwi, ungaze ulibale amathuba anyiniweyo. Ukuba sinezinto eziphathekayo, iteknoloji kufuneka isekwe kuyo kuxhomekeke kwimveliso enokwenzeka. Siza kukhetha enye mai-terial xa sifuna ukuwelda, kunye nezinye, ukuba sifuna ukujoyina ukwenza ngokurhweba. Kwisiciko sebhokisi ehlotshiswe ngobugcisa kufuneka izinto ezifanelekileyo zokhuni, kunye namagumbi angaphantsi iishelufu, ezinye izinto. Siya kunqumla i-insert ngasemva kwe-armchair ukusuka iqhekeza elinye le-sponge foam. Noko ke, ukuze kuzaliseke i-cushion yesitulo esisebenzayo sinokusebenza njengokukhusela ilangaugwebu olunogwebu.
 
Umgaqo obalulekileyo: isicwangciso esicacileyo senziwe kuphela emva kokuthengwa izinto eziyimfuneko. Ezinye izakhiwo azinakwenziwa ukufezekisa, umzekelo, kuphela ngenxa yokuba imarike ikhonaukujikeleziswa kwemilinganiselo emikhulu kunokuba bekucetywa.
 
Umzobo bubuxoki! Ngokuqhelekileyo banokuba mnandi kakhulu kuyo cwangcisa iinkcukacha, kwaye ngexesha lendibano kuqinisekiswa ukuba zikhona akunakwenzeka ukudibanisa; abanye ke, kungekuko emva kwendibano Ndiyakwazi ukuqhaqha ngakumbi.
 
Masingaze silibale ukuqinisekisa izinto ze ukutyibilika, ukushukuma nokukhulula. Ngokomzekelo, siyacaphula amathuba amaninzi okukhusela "uqhagamshelo" ngokusebenzisa izikrufu ukusuka ekuvuleni: iwasha, iwasha yasentwasahlobo, iphedi yesithsabaintambo, iqhekeza, ukwaphula isiphelo sesikrufu, ipolishi yezikhonkwane, itshungama, ipeyinti, i-counter nut (i-nut), iplastiki iwasha, ikepusi yokukhusela, njl. Eyona fuse ifanelekileyo kufuneka khetha kwangaphambili kwaye ubonise kumzobo.
 
Sikwacinga nangokuziqhelanisa neemfuno. Siya kuba serious ngakumbi sondela kuyilo lwe-go-kart steering shaft kunokuba ukuyila indlu yeentaka. Ulwakhiwo luvakala ngokwahlukileyotor xa uyila imodeli yenqwelomoya elawulwa ngunomathotholo, kunaxa kuyilwa isikhephe somthi sokudlala sonyaka iholide.
 
Kunzima ukufunda bonke ubulumko bokuyila ngexesha elinye kwisicatshulwa. Kodwa, impumelelo ayisayi kubakho ukuba sizoba nayo iprojekthisidla ngokucinga, ngokuchanekileyo, ngokucocekileyo kunye nokulawulwa kwaye ukuba asizisoli umzamo (kunye nezinye izibonelelo zemali) ukufumana umsebenzi ezifunekayo iimvume ezisemthethweni, imigangatho kunye nemimiselo.

Amanqaku anxulumeneyo