Ubushushu basesiphakathini

Ukufudumala okuphakathi (uyilo, ukhetho lwezinto zokufudumeza, ukudibanisa kwamanqaku)

Ubushushu basesiphakathini
 
Ukufudumeza amagumbi amakhulu kunye nezakhiwo zeentsapho kungokwemveliasiyonto yokuzonwabisa yasebusika kwezo zitovu. Ukufudumeza kuvuliwe le ndlela ayimnandanga hayi nje ngokuba inika umsebenzi malunga nokugcinwa kwesitofu, kodwa nangenxa yokuba kufuneka silungiswe ukubasa, ukubasa umlilo, coca uthuthu, kunye nako konke oku indlu iba mdaka kunesiqhelo ngenxa yomsebenzi. Ukongeza kwezi zinto zingalunganga, ukufudumeza ngezitovu akuthandeki ngobuhle ukulingana kokusasazwa kobushushu akuhlangabezani nemfunekoyezindlu zale mihla. Ngokusekelwe kwezi nyaniso, Akumangalisi ukuba kungekhona kwizakhiwo ezitsha kuphela kuluntuimpahla yenciniba, kodwa nakwizakhiwo zosapho ezikhethekileyo namhlanje isebenzisa inkqubo yokufudumeza esembindini.
 
Iskimu sokufudumeza, umgaqo wokusebenza
 
Isixhobo sokufudumeza okuphakathi (umzobo 1) siqukethe iinkqubo: iibhoyili, izinto zokufudumeza kunye nemibhobho. Eyona ndawo iphezulu yenkqubo yinqanawa yokwandisa. Inkqubo yonke izaliswe ngamanzi. Ukuba sitshisa kwibhoyila, amanzi nawo ashushu ngenxa yokungacaciswanga kancinci ubunzima uyenyuka, kwaye amanzi ashushu endaweni amanzi ukuba ipholile phantsi kwizinto zokufudumeza (ngoko ke inomlinganiselo ophezulu ophezulu ubunzima). Amanzi aqukuqela ukuya phezulu aphuma ngombhobho esiya kwisifudumezi umzimba ulapho, ukhupha ubushushu bawo, uphole kwaye ubuyele kwibhoyila.
 
isixhobo sokufudumeza esiphakathi
UMBONISO 1
 
Ngoko ke, ngenxa yokwahlukana kubunzima obuthile bokubanda kunye nokufudumala yamanzi kwinkqubo idala ukuhamba okuvaliweyo okuqhubekayo eyenza unikezelo lwesixa esithile sobushushu ngokufudumeza imizimba.
 
Amandla okwenza ukujikeleza kwamanzi ngenxa yokwahlukana amaqondo obushushu - ngakumbi xa ufudumeza enye kuphela inqanaba - lincinci kakhulu kwaye ngoko ke kubalulekile ukulinganisa izixhobo ngokusekelwe kwizibalo ezinononophelo nezichanekileyo. Ngokusebenza kudla ngokusenzeka ukuba izixhobo, ingakumbi ezincinane kunye s ngamnyetanovs, iprojekthi ngokukhawuleza kwaye isekelwe kwidatha evela kumavava. Alithandabuzeki elokuba kunokwenziwa ngolu hlobo maxa wambi qhuba ngempumelelo inkqubo yokufudumeza esembindini, kodwa ixhaphake kakhulu ukuba ayisebenzi ngokungenasiphako, kwaye iimpazamo ezisisiphumo sele kunzima ukuzilungisa ngokulandelayo. 
 
Ngoko ke, akufanele sizisole ngomgudu wokudala izibalo eziyimfuneko kunye neeprojekthi, kuba ngokuqinisekileyo kuya kuhlawula. Asimele silibale ukuba inkqubo enjalo ifanele isebenze ubomi bonke.
 
Umsebenzi wokuqala ekuyilweni kukubala imfunokubungakanani bobushushu bokufudumeza amagumbi afunwayo. Kuyimfuneko ubungakanani bobushushu bokufudumeza buhambelana neelahleko zayooh Ukulahleka kobushushu kuxhomekeke kumahluko kubushushu bangaphandle kunye nobushushu begumbi lokufudumeza, ukusuka kwi-coefficient yendlela yobushushu yaloo miphezulu ithintela ukujongwa igumbi kunye nobukhulu bale miphezulu.
 
Ubalo kufuneka lwenziwe ngokwahlukeneyo kwindawo nganye nge ngee-coefficients ezahlukeneyo zokuhambisa ubushushu kunye nomahluko kwi-spamaqondo obushushu angaphandle nangaphakathi. Isimbuku se parci efunyenwe njaloiziphumo ziya kunika inani elifunekayo lobushushu lilonke indawo. (Kwabo bathandabuzayo ukwenza izibalo, siyaqaphela ukuba kuphela izibalo ezisisiseko ezifunekayo ekubaleni).
 
Ubungakanani obufunekayo bobushushu bubalwa kusetyenziswa ifomula:
 
Q=F * k (t-tk)
baphi:
 
Q - ubungakanani bobushushu obulahlekileyo kwigumbi, kcal / iyure;
F - umphezulu (udonga, ifestile, umnyango, umgangatho, isilingi) apho kudlula ubushushu, m2;
k - i-coefficient yokudlulisa ubushushu kumphezulu oqatshelweyo, kcal/m2° C
t- Ubushushu obufunwayo bangaphakathi begumbi, °C
tk - Ubushushu bangaphandle bomphezulu ojongweyo, °C
 
umthamo ofunekayo wobushushu
UMBONISO 2
 
Ukufumana amagqabantshintshi angcono okubala, siya kuthatha into ephathekayo umzekelo. Umsebenzi kukubala ubungakanani obufunekayo yobushushu besakhiwo sokuhlala ukusuka kumfanekiso ongunombolo. 2. Iinkcukacha zobuchwephesha zezi: iindonga zokwahlula ezenziwe ngezitena ezinamathambo, ubukhulu be-10 cm, yatyatyekwa macala omabini, udonga olukhulu 38 cm ubukhulu zityatyekwe macala omabini, iingcango ezimenyezisiweyo omnye; i-rozor ephindwe kabini ngesakhelo somthi. isilingi ngamaplanga imiqadi emacaleni omabini yagqunywe ngeebhodi nangaphezulu kwesilingi i-attic evaliweyo, umhlaba phantsi komgangatho. Ubuncinci obulindelekileyo iqondo lobushushu ngaphandle - 20°C. Ukudlula kobushushu ngaphandle ifestile:
 
Ummandla: F = 1,5 x 2 = 3 m2
I-coefficient yokudlulisa ukushisa: k = 3,5
Umahluko wobushushu: tb = +20°C, t= - 20°C, tb -tk = 20 - (-20) = 40°C
Q = 3 x 3,5 x 40 = 420 kcal / iyure
 
Ipaseji yobushushu kudonga olukhulu olungaphandle:
Ummandla: F = 3 x 4 - indawo yefestile = 12 - 3 = 9 m2
 
Q = 9 h 1,3 x 40 = 468 kcal / iyure
 
Ukudlula kobushushu ngomnyango oya eholweni:
Ummandla: F = 0,9 x 2 = 1,8 m2
 
k = 3
Umahluko wobushushu: tb = 20°C; tk =16°C, tb -tk = 20 - 16 = 4°C
Q = 1,8 x 3 x 4 = 21,6 kcal / iyure
 
Ukudlula kobushushu eludongeni ukuya eholweni:
Ummandla: F = 3 x 3,5 - indawo yomnyango = 10,5 - 1,8 = 8,7m2
k = 1,6
Umahluko wobushushu: tb -tk = 40 ° C
Q = 8,7 x 1,6 x 4 = 55,7 kcal / iyure
 
Ukudlula kobushushu eludongeni ukuya kwiWC:
Ummandla: F = 1,5 x 3 = 4,5m2
k = 1,6
Umahluko wobushushu: tb -tk = 2 ° C
Q = 4,5 x 1,6 x 2 = 14,2 kcal / iyure
 
Indlela yobushushu eludongeni ukuya kwigumbi lokuhlambela:
Ummandla: F = 1,9 x 3 = 5,7m2
k = 1,6
Umahluko wobushushu: t-tk = 20 - (+24) = -4°C
 
Kule meko, ukushisa kudlula kwindawo yokuhlambela ukuya kumagumbi, i.e. akukho malunga nokulahleka kobushushu, kodwa malunga nenzuzo kwaye ngoko ke le ixabiso ekupheleni kufuneka litsalwe kubushushu obufunekayo.
 
Q = 5,7 x 1,6 x (-4) = -36,5
 
Akukho mahluko kwiqondo lokushisa phakathi kwamagumbi ngamanye, kunokubanangona kunjalo, akukho kudluliselwa kobushushu, ngoko ke akukho mfuneko yokuba umxeli-thamsanqanathi.
 
Ukuhamba kobushushu kwisilingi:
Ummandla: F = 3,5 x 4 = 15 m2
k = 1,5
Umahluko wobushushu: t-tk = 20 - (-12) = 32°C
Q = 15 x 1,5 x 32 = 720 kcal / iyure
 
Ukuhamba kobushushu emgangathweni:
Ummandla: F = 15m2
k = 1,5
Umahluko wobushushu: t- t= 20 - (-2) = 22°C
Q = 15 x 1,5 x 22 = 495 kcal / iyure
 
Ubushushu obufunekayo:
 
420
468
21,6
55,7
14,2
720
495
-----------
2194,5 kcal / iyure
 
Ixabiso elifunyenwe ngolu hlobo kufuneka linyuswe ngokongezwa ezinje ngecala lehlabathi, isibonelelo somoya kunye nesibonelelo ukuphazamiseka kokufudumeza.
 
Izixhobo zomoya:
Iindawo eziqhelekileyo: ezinodonga olunye lwangaphandle olunokuvulwa:
I-10% eneendonga ezininzi zangaphandle ezinokuvulwa: 15%
Iindawo ezinomoya: ezinodonga olunye lwangaphandle olunokuvulwa:
I-20%, kunye neendonga ezininzi zangaphandle ezinokuvuleka: 25%.
 
Isongezo sokumisa ukufudumeza:
Ikhefu elilindelekileyo ekufudumeni ukusuka kwi-8 - 12 iiyure ngosuku: 15%.
Ukuphazamiseka okulindelweyo ekufudumezeni ukusuka kwiiyure eziyi-12 ukuya kwezili-16 ngosuku: 25%.
 
Ukongezwa kumacala ehlabathi
Ukuqhelaniswa nomNtla-ntshona: 5%.
Ukuqhelaniswa noMantla: 10%.
 
Igumbi kumzekelo libekwe kwindawo kunye nesiqhelo imimoya, ijoliswe emantla kwaye ngoko ifunyenwe ixabiso kufuneka longezwe kabini nge-10%, okt. iyonke ngama-20%.
 
Asiyi kubala isibonelelo sokuphazamiseka kokufudumeza, kuba kunjalo engaqhubekiyo.
 
2194,5
+438,9 (20%)
----------------------
2633,4
 
Ubungakanani bobushushu obufunyenwe eludongeni kufuneka butsalwe kweli xabiso ukuya kwigumbi lokuhlambela:
 
2633,4
- 36,5
-------------
2596,9
 
Ngoko ke, inani elifunekayo lobushushu ukutshisa igumbi Q = 2597 kcal / iyure
 
Ukuqikelela
 
Okokuqala, xa uyila, isiseko samacala kufuneka sitsalwe isikali 1:100. okanye ukuba kunokwenzeka 1:50. Izinto zokufudumeza ezifunekayokodwa kufuneka ibekwe phantsi kwefestile, kumagumbi apho akukho zifestile ecaleni komnyango okhokelela kwindawo ekhululekileyo, okanye ngamagumbi apholileyo. Olu cwangciso kungenxa yokuba mhlawumbi umbhobho omde, ubiza ngaphezulu kancinci kuneshedyuli izinto zokufudumeza ecaleni kweendonga zangaphakathi, kodwa iingenelo kukuhamba yomoya kwaye, kolu nxibelelwano, ukuhanjiswa kobushushu, kubaluleke kakhuluayiyo. (umzo. 3)
 
ukuhamba komoya
UMBONISO 3
 
Ukukhethwa kwezinto zokufudumeza
 
Emva kokuyila, khetha uhlobo lwezinto zokufudumeza kwaye unqumengaphandle kweendawo zokufudumeza ezifunekayo. Ukufudumeza ngamanzi ashushu ezona zinto zifanelekileyo zokufudumeza ziyi-radiator zensimbi. Ezi radiators abaninzi bayathandabuza ukusebenzisa, kutyholwa ngokuba banamanzi iyonakala kwaye ivuza ngokukhawuleza. Nangona kunjalo, oku kwenzeka kuphela xa amanzi ekhutshwa rhoqo kwaye ngokungafanelekanga kwinkqubo, okanye xa iradiyetha ishiywe ixesha elide emva kokukhupha amanzi ixesha ngaphandle kwamanzi. Ngaphantsi kokusetyenziswa okuqhelekileyo, ubomi benkonzo yentsimbi Irediyetha iphantse ilingane nobomi beerediyointo. Iiradiyetha zentsimbi ayizona zifanelekileyo ukufudumeza ngamanzi ashushu kwindawo yokuqala kuba kunjalo zibiza kakhulu, nangenxa yokuba banobunzima obukhulu. Ngokubhekiselele ekusebenzeni kwe-thermal, zombini iindidi ze-radiator ziyafana.
 
iiradiyetha zentsimbi kunye nentsimbi
 
Iiradiyetha zeAluminiyam ziphakathi kwezona mihla izinto zokufudumeza (Alutherm, Radal). Iimpawu ze-thermal ezi iiradiator zifikeleleka kakhulu, ubunzima babo buphantsi, zinenkangeleko yangaphandle entle kakhulu neyanamhlanje. Uqhagamshelwano lwaboudibaniso lwenziwe ngeeflange ezinemisonto. Xa udibanisa i-radiator, ukuze ungenzi i-galvanic element ngokudibanisa naloo nto kunye ne-corrosion, iintloko kunye ne-shafts ye-screws kufuneka i-insulated eleci-insulator kathathu.
 
iiradiyetha aluminiyam
 
iradiyetha aluminiyam
Ukudityaniswa kwamanqaku
 
Iiradiyetha zentsimbi ebanzi kufuneka zisetyenziswe kuphela ngoko ukuba usebenzisa eziqhelekileyo (ukusuka kwi-150 mm) iya kuphuma kakhulu iradiyetha ende. Iiradiyetha zentsimbi zinokufumaneka ngokurhwebaiwayini kunye 5 - 10 -15 - 20 amanqaku adityaniswe omnye komnye. Ukuba ukuba ngaphezulu kwamanqaku angama-20 afunekayo kwirediyetha enye, ngoko ke
singayandisa ngeyunithi ye-5 okanye mhlawumbi i-10 eleI-menta isebenzisa iibholithi eziphakathi kwi-5/4" yeeradiyetha ngasekhohlo nasekunene intambo kunye ne-sealant eyenziwe nge-clingerite okanye i-centaur. Izikrufu ziyacetyiswa thambisa ngegrisi enganyangekiyo ngamanzi enendawo ebilayo ngaphezulu kwe-100 ° C, okanye ngeoyile yegraphite. Isitshixo esikhethekileyo siyafuneka ekufakeni izinto. 
 
Iiradiyetha zentsimbi kunye neeradiyetha zentsimbi ezindalaIimveliso ze-e zihlanganiswa ngezinto kwaye ziboshwe kunyeizikrufu. Ukuba sithenga iiradiyetha esele zikhe zasetyenziswa, kufuneka sizithenge kufuneka ihlolwe ngononophelo kwaye ihlolwe phambi kofakelo, ngakumbi iindawo zecandelo lezinto ezizimeleyo. Ezinye zingcono ngento ebukhali (umz. i-scraper entlangothi-ntathu) khangela sicwecwe lesinyithi esincinci, ngenxa yokuba i-sheet yentsimbi ebuthathaka iya kuhlatywa ngenxa yoxinzelelo ke ngale ndlela siya kuzisindisa kwezinye izinto eziphazamisayo.
 
irediyetha yentsimbi
 
Uvavanyo loxinzelelo
 
Iiradiator esizidibanise ngokwethu, okanye iiradiyetha ezisetyenzisiweyoke, kufuneka ihlolwe phambi kwendibano. Kuya kuzama kunjalokulula ukwenza ukuba sivala isiphelo esinye seradiyetha ngeeplagimasiyibeke kwezo plagi. Emva koko gcwalisa ngokupheleleyo irediyetha ngamanzi kwaye uvale enye yeendawo eziseleyo ngeplagi enemisonto, kwaye ubeke irabha kwelinye ivula umbhobho ngoqhagamshelo lombhobho. Esinye isiphelo sombhobho werabha masiqhagamshele kuthungelwano lonikezelo lwamanzi. Ukuba ngenxa yoxinzelelo lwamanziemva kwemizuzu emi-5-10, asiqapheli ukuba uthungelwano lwamanzi lusebenzaIjator iyavuza, singayikhwela. Apho kungekho manzi amanethiwekhi, sinokuvelisa uxinzelelo lwe-2-3 kwi ngempompo yesandla.
 
Sinokubeka iiradiyetha emilenzeni okanye kwii-consoles, ezincanyathiselwe eludongeni. Isisombululo se-console singcono, kuba ayikuthinteli ukucoca phantsi kwe-radiator, kwaye ine-es engconojonga umakazi. Ukulungisa i-console, kufuneka uqhube umngxuma eludongeni ukuvula 10 - 12 cm ubunzulu ukuze amacala lokuvula paralelne okanye ukuba imbobo banzi ukuya eludongeni. Ngaphezulu kokuvula ubuncinane imiqolo emibini yezitena mayihlale ingonakaliswa. NgomsebenziUmqadi wezinto ezingama-20 ufuna ezimbini, kwaye ixesha elide - iiconsoles ezintathu.
 
Umthombo wobushushu
 
Umphezulu wokufudumala ofunekayo webhoyili unqunywe ngokusekelwe ubushushu obufunekayo besakhiwo (ifulethi). Siza kufumana le sayizi ngokongeza izixa ezifunekayo zobushushu kumagumbi ngamnye. Kwiibhoyili ezincinci, ezitshiswa nge-coke okanye ngamalahle omgangatho ongcono, anokubalwa kuwo I-10.000 kcal / iyure kwi-1 m2 iindawo zokufudumeza. Ngoko ke, ukuba ukwahlula inani elifunekayo lobushushu lilonke nge-10.000, ngoko siya kuphantse ukufumana indawo yokufudumeza efunekayo kwibhoyila. Kuyacetyiswa, nangona kunjalo, ukuthatha ibhoyila enomsebenzi ongaphezulu kancinci ukusuka kubaliwe.
 
Uhlobo lwebhoyila lumiselwa ngokuyintloko luhlobo lwesibaso. Kuba i-coke, iibhoyili zentsimbi ezincinci zezona zifanelekileyo. Kuba iibhoyili zetsimbi zifanelekile ngakumbi ukutshiswa ngamafutha ahlukeneyo kwaye inolwakhiwo oludityanisiweyo.
 
Iibhoyili ezincinci zihlala zinendawo yokufudumala ye-1,5 m(15.000 kcal / iyure), 2,14 m2 (22.000 kcal / iyure) kunye ne-3.16 m2 (32.000 kcal / iyure). Kwisakhiwo sosapho, esinikezwe kumfanekiso ongunombolo 4 njengomzekelo, i-17.000 kcal / iyure ejikelezayo iyadingeka ubushushu obupheleleyo. Sakhetha i-coke ukuba ibe namafutha. Ngokutsho kwabo bonke idatha enikiweyo ifuna ibhoyila enomgangatho wokufudumeza ye 2,14 m2.
 
ubushushu obufunekayo kwisakhiwo sosapho
UMBONISO 4

Amanqaku anxulumeneyo