makemikari uye polyplastics

Makemikari uye polyplastics, makemikari emumba, adhesives

Kugadzira nemakemikari uye polyplasts
 
Munguva yakapfuura, chemistry yainzi "black magic", nepo nhasi tinosangana naye pamatanho ese, kunyangwe kumbamurume kana mukadzi. Isu tinoziva kuti "Black Bull" kana vamwe tinogona kugeza zvipfeko nyore nyore ne detergents. Ndezvevazhinji inozivikanwa kuti tetraethylol inowedzera octane nhamba yepeturu. Zvechokwadi, ruzivo urwu haruiti kuti munhu ave chemist. Kuti ndiite izvozvo mushure mezvose, ngatizivei nezve izvo zvekutanga zve chemistry:
 
Nyaya inogona kuiswa mune imwe nyaya, nezvinhu zvakasiyana-siyana, nzira dziri nyore dzemuviri (nekusarudza, kusefa, magineti, zvichingodaro) inonzi musanganiswa. Izvo, zvachose homogeneous nyaya, izvo zvakadaro nzira dziri nyore hadzigoni kukamurwa kuita zvikamu ine zvinhu zvakasiyana inonzi komboni.
 
Makomponi anoumbwa nemamorekuru anoumbwa ne zvinhu, izvo zvakasungwa nemamwe makemikari zvisungo. Izvi zvisungo hazvibvumiri kupatsanurwa kwavo nyore. Kuparadza, kudimburwa kwezvisungo izvozvo kunoda masimba makuru, emakemikari kupindira. Ipapo mamorekuru anoputsika kuita zvinhu maatomu. Kwenguva refu zvaifungwa kuti maatomu aisagona kugovaniswazve. Muzana redu ramakore, fungidziro yapakuvamba iyoyo maatomu anosanganisira kunyange madiki ekutanga zvidimbu izvo vanosiyana kubva kune mumwe nemumwe maererano nehukuru uye magetsi charge. Iwo akanyanya kunaka ekutanga zvimedu akanaka inochaji proton, neutron neutron uye negative elekitironi.
 
Inotora chikamu mune zvese zvinosanganiswa zve92 zvinhu zvakasikwa 15 chete kusvika ku20 zvinhu.
 
Isu tinoyera huremu hwemaatomu ezvinhu nenzira yekuti ivo tinoenzanisa kangani padzinorema kupfuura maatomu echinhu chakareruka yehydrogen (maererano netsanangudzo itsva ye1/12 yeatomu kabhoni.
 
Hapana chimwe chezvikamu chinogona kuva chega nechimwe chinhu mune zvakasarudzika, chero huwandu. Zvinogonekaisu tinofunga kubatanidzwa kwemakemikari kweatomu rehydrogen unit. Naizvozvo, atomu yehydrogen ine monovalent. Atomu inoumba komboni neatomu rimwe rehydrogen zvakare ine monovalent. Kana chinhu chichisunga zviviri, zvitatu, mana etc. atomu rehydrogen ipapo ndiye; maviri, matatu, mana etc. valence. Osmovalency ndiyo yakanyanya kunaka valency chimwe chinhu. Zvisinei, pane zvinhu zvine valence yakawandaini ivo vari variable valences.
 
Iwo makuru mapoka emakomboni ari inorganic uye organic kubatana. Organic makomisheni ane kabhoni, nepo mune inorganic - pamwe zvisingawanzo kunze - hapana kabhoni.
 
Chikonzero chekuvapo kwehuwandu hwehuwandu hwema organic compounds inokwanisa kusunga makabhoni pamwe chete maatomu, ndiko kuti, mukugadzirwa kweketani dzekabhoni. (Zita organic komisheni imhaka yekunzwisisa kwekutanga kuti ivo zvipenyu chete ndizvo zvinogona kuburitsa.)
 
ACIDS zvinhu zvine njodzi zvinoparadza zviri paganda kana mudumbu kukonzera maronda akanyanya, akafanana nekupisa. Acids inogona kuzivikanwa zviri nyore uchishandisa litmus bepa, nokuti blue litmus inoshanduka tsvuku muasidhi. Paunenge uchishanda nemaasidhi magirazi ekuchengetedza uye magirovhosi erabha anodiwa. Kana zvirizvo pasinei nekuchenjerera, donhwe reasidhi rakawira paganda redu - kutanga inofanira kupukuta nemucheka wakaoma, wozoshambidzwa pasi pemvura inoyerera nemvura uye pakupedzisira kuderedza maronda easidhi nemhinduro kubika soda (mufananidzo 1).
 
acid kubata
MUFANANIDZO 1
 
BASES zvigadziriso zvinogadzirwa zvesimbi okisidhi nemvura. Alkalis mabhesi anonyungudika nemvura uye ane corrosive effect. Ivo vanogona kuzivikanwa nyore, nekuti yavo mhedzisiro ye red litmus mafashamo. Zvinoita ngura zvinhu. Maronda kubva kwavari akaoma kupora, akaoma kupfuura maronda kubva kuprousekurapwa nemaasidhi. Mitemo yeHTZ yakafanana neyeasidhi. Kana ganda rikakuvadzwa, rinofanira kugezwa ne diluted acid (na muenzaniso neacetic acid).
 
SALTS inoumbwa nekuita kwemabhesi uye acids. Zvishoma kana havatambudzi ganda zvachose. Paunenge uchishanda nemunyu, unofanirwa uchenjere, nokuti dzimwe dzine chepfu.
 
Makemikari emumba
 
Yave ichizivikanwa kwenguva refu, kunyanya pakuchengetedza chikafuyezvinhu.
 
Preservatives inogona kukamurwa kuva:
 
1. Zvinhu izvo panguva imwe chete. vanopa kunaka uye kuchengetedza zvinhu: shuga, munyu, vhiniga, mafuta, citric acid, tartaric acid acid.
 
2. Zvishandiso zvekuparadza tupukanana: saltpeter, glutamic acid, alum, mukaka weraimu, salicylic, benzoic acid asidhi uye sodium benzoate.
 
3. Pythian zvinhu, mavara uye zvinonhuwira.
 
Shuga. Nekuwedzera 55% shuga (shuga =C12H22O11) kune mumwe munhu chigadzirwa (kubva plums, raspberries, apricots, mapeya, maapuro) pasina kuwedzera mamwe makemikari, tinogona kuichengetedza zvachoserally (inotapira). Hazvikurudzirwe kuwedzera zvinopfuura 55% shuga, nekuti shuga inopenya. Kukosha pasi pe50% haichengetedze shuga. Kuwedzera shuga kune acidic foods zvinyorwa, iwe unongoda kuzvibika kwenguva pfupi, nekuti kuora kunoitikazveshuga.
 
Saka. Tafura yemunyu (sodium chloride, NaCl) inoshandawo kuravira uye kuchengetedza panguva imwe chete. Kugona kugona imhaka ye hygroscopicity yemunyu (inotora unyoro). Kana nyama munyu, munyu unosunga huwandu hwemvura kwete chete kubva munyama asiwo kubva kubhakitiriya uye nokudaro inovaparadza. Uye mamwe ma microorganisms handikwanise. kurarama pasina mvura.
 
Saltpetre. (Potassium nitrate, KNO3) Munyu, kuvava, kuchena, crystalline powder. Haina kwayakarerekera. Nokuda kwekugadzira 2,5 kg yenyama pedza 0,5 gramu ye potassium nitrate mu 100 g yemvura inodziya. Inyorovesa nyama yakakanyiwa nemhinduro iyi. Unofanira kungwarira pamushonga chaiwo, nekuti muhuwandu hwakakura potassium saltpeter jinovava uye ine chepfu.
 
Glutamic asidhi (amino-pyruvic asidhi, amino-glutaric asidhi, NOOS-SN2- SN2-SN(NH)2- SOON is amino acid inowanikwa munenge mapuroteni ese. Inoshandiswa kuita concentrates yemasupu akasiyana-siyana uye broths (Podravka, Knorr, etc.), kureva kuchengetedza nyama. 1 g ye glutamic acid yakanyungudutswa inotorwa pa 5 kg yenyama.
 
Alum (potassium-aluminium-sulfate, KAl(SO4)2 mu mumamiriro ayo akachena, inoshandiswa kugadzira canning, kureva, nokuda kuoma kwechimiro chemichero yakapfava nemiriwo, kuitira kuti varege yakaputsika panguva yekugadzira, yakaparadzwa. Kune 1 kg yemuchero, kureva yemiriwo, 1,4 g yealum inoshandiswa.
 
Mukaka we lime. Iine maitiro akafanana nealum Dissolve 0,5 kg ye quicklime mu 5 litres emvura uye uende rega imire kwehusiku humwe, yakanyatso decant (dururira approx 2/3 yemhinduro yakajeka) uye mumukaka uyu weraimu [Ca (OH)2tinonyorovesa michero kana miriwo kwemaminitsi 15-20 uye pakupedzisira yakaomaRemo nemvura inodziya.
 
Citric acid. Citric acid iri mumuriwo yakapararira zvikuru muumambo. Inowanikwa munenge muchero wese (Oxy-propane-tricarbonic acid, C6H8O7) Hakunhuwi, makristasi asina ruvara e citric acid anonyungudika mukudziya tungamira 1 kusvika 1 g yeasidhi inodiwa kune 2 kg yemuchero.
 
Tartaric acid. Husina ruvara, husina hwema (C4H6O6), uyo potassium munyu inowanikwa muwaini. Kuita kweasidhi iyi kwakafanana citric acid.
 
Acetic acid. Isina ruvara, ine kunhuhwirira kwakapinza, yakasimba acidic corrosive substance (SN3SOON). Iye muvengi mukuru molds uye mabhakitiriya. Pamusoro peimwe concentration, mune acidic nharaunda, mabhakitiriya haagone kurarama. Ndicho chikonzero kazhinji sacetic acid inoshandiswa kuchengetedza. Muzvitoro inowanikwa muzvikamu zvakasiyana (simba). Ku 1 kg anenge 2-3 deciliters e10% anokwana kune chimwe chigadzirwa acetic acid solution. Acetic acid inoparadza yakakura nhamba yesimbi (simbi, aruminiyamu, mhangura, zingi). Nemhangura kana iyo acetic acid inoumbwa ne zinc ine chepfu, uye inogona chete kushanda sepakeji yeacetic acid mudziyo wakagadzirwa negirazi, ceramic, enamel, plastiki kana huni.
 
Salicylic acid ichena, tsono-yakafanana, crystalline poda, isina kunhuwa (C6H4(OH)COOH). Ichepfu yemasero, uye inoiparadza mabhakitiriya uye spores. Muhuwandu hukuru, ine chepfu zvakare kuvanhu chipenyu, uye rinoshandiswa kugadzika mune zvidiki, chaizvo dzimwe mari. Iyo yakawanda inowedzerwa kune 1 kg yemucheroi 0,8g.
 
Benzoic acid ichena, silky, acicular kana plate-like, crystalline zvinhu (N6С5SOON). Inoparadza buck zvakanaka kwazvoteria uye spores. Muhuwandu hukuru, ine zvakare inokuvadza pa chipenyu, uye 1 gramu chete inowedzerwa kune 0,5 kg yechigadzirwa.
 
Adhesives
 
Huwandu hukuru hwekunamira hwekugadzira huri kuwedzera kukunda musika. Nekudaro, isu hatifanirwe kunyengedzwa nezita rekuti "universal glue". Aya glues akanaka asi kwete pasi rose, chete kune zvimwe zvinhudzimwe dzinokwana zvakanaka, dzimwe dzisina kunaka.
 
glues 
Tichanyora mashoma ezvinyorwa zvakakosha zvinogona kushandiswa enda pamusika wepamba, uine chinyorwa, izvo zvinhu zvinogona kushandiswa  zviri nani kunamatira neglue.
 
Felt, (bhonzo, dehwe) rinoshandiswa kubatanidza bepa, huni, machira, cellophane, pamwe nekunamira izvi paganda uye girazi.
 
Venzol i polystyrene solvent, i.e. inonamira yayo. Oslm yekubatanidza gluing ye polystyrene mahwendefa, na benplexiglass, celluloid uye cellophane zvakanamirwa kune polystyrene ine zol.
 
Girazi remvura rinoshandiswa gluing girazi uye rakaoma zvinhu, senge bakelite nemachira, bepa, simbi, porcelain uye ceramics, i.e. pakati pavo.
 
Chloroform chinhu chinonyungudutsa, i.e. chinonamira che plexi-girazi. Plexiglas inogona kunama nechloroform kune girazi, Ceramic, porcelain, polystyrene uye celluloid.
 
Boropor inonamira rabha kune rabha, rabha kusimbi, dehwe, girazi, porcelain, huni, textile. Uyewo ganda pasimbi, isina simba pa girazi nehuni.
 
Oho "universal" adhesive yakashandiswa zvakabudirira kunama kwegirazi, porcelain, huni, plastiki, simbi.
 
Risoprene (artificial rubber) inonyanya kushandiswa kunama kwerabha nematehwe. Nekunamira linoleum, podolite, vinaz bhodhi, parquet pane kongiri inokurudzirwa zvakare.
 
Savanol inoshandiswa kubatanidza ganda, rubber, ultramakapeti, makapeti, machira, huni, salonite nemarata.
 
Neostik un "universal" glue. Inogona kushandiswa gluing zvinhu zvakasiyana; dehwe, huni, rabha, machira etc.
 
Drvofix inonamira yehuni, mapaneru emapuranga (paneli, chipboard, nezvimwewo). styrofoam nehuni, parquet pazvigadziko zvehuni, nezvimwe.
 
Teleol (neoprene). Glue yegluing yeganda, rabha, plastikiyezvinhu, machira, huni, PVC floor coverings Ltd.
 
Krautoxin (Kunstsoff aus der Tube). Zviviri-chikamu glue, uko izvo zvikamu zviviri zvinotanga kusanganiswa uye ipapo mukati mehafu yeawa vanoshandisa. Yakanaka simbi, dombo, girazi, porcelain, thermostable polyplastics (Bakelite), nezvimwewo.
 
Epoxy-glues, akadai se: ARALDIT (Switzerland), ERON (Shell), EPILOX (Buna-werke), EPORESIT (Hungary), ivo nguva nenguva pamusika, nenzira yehupfu, paste, matandahongu, emulsion. Iwo akanakisa adhesives, kunyanya kana kubatanidza simbi nesimbi, kureva rabha, dehwe, nezvimwe.
 
Desmodur, desmoden ndeye polyurethane adhesives, shandisa pakunamira simbi nerabha, kureva simbi ine simbi.
    

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