Zomangamanga zaukakalipentala

Zomangamanga zaukakalipentala

 Zomangamanga za ukalipentala ndi zinthu ziyenera kukhala zaukhondo, zokongola komanso zomasuka mukazigwiritsa ntchito; iwo akhoza kugawidwa mu chimango, mbale, chimango-mbale ndi rectilinear ndi curvilinear mawonekedwe.

Chifukwa cha kutentha ndi chinyezi, nkhuni zimatha kusintha kukula kwake mkati mwa malire akuluakulu. Mwachitsanzo, mukaumitsa kuchokera ku malire a hygroscopicity (chinyezi) kupita kumalo owuma kwathunthu, kutengera mitundu, nkhuni zimasintha miyeso yake ndi ulusi ndi 0,1 mpaka 0,3%, munjira yozungulira ndi 3 mpaka 6% komanso kuwongolera kwamphamvu ndi 6 mpaka 10%. Chifukwa chake, m'chaka, chinyezi chazitseko zakunja za beech chimasintha kuchokera pa 10 mpaka 26%. Izi zikutanthauza kuti bolodi lililonse la khomo limenelo, lomwe ndi 100 mm mulifupi, limakulitsa miyeso yake ndi 5,8 mm pamene linyowa ndikuchepa mofanana ndi mpweya. Pankhaniyi, ming'alu imawonekera pakati pa matabwa. Izi zikhoza kupewedwa ngati mankhwala opala matabwa amamangidwa m'njira yakuti kusintha kosalephereka kwa magawo amtundu wa mankhwala kumachitika momasuka, popanda kusokoneza mawonekedwe a mphamvu. Chifukwa chake, mwachitsanzo, popanga chitseko chokhala ndi choyikapo, choyikapo ichi, chomwe chimayikidwa mumizere ya friezes ofukula ya chimango, chiyenera kukhala ndi kusiyana kwa 2 mpaka 3 mm, koma kuti ikauma, ikani. komabe sichimatuluka m’mphako (mkuyu 1).

20190928 104738 15

Chithunzi 1: Chitseko chodutsana ndi cholowera

Zopangira ukalipentala ziyenera kupangidwa ndi ma slats olimba kapena omatira (mafelemu a zitseko za bolodi, matabwa opala matabwa, etc.).

Zomangamanga zaukakalipentala sizimavutika ndi kupsinjika kwakukulu kapena kusinthasintha panthawi yomwe akugwiritsa ntchito. Ndipo komabe, popanga zinthuzi, samalani kuti voteji ikugwirizana ndi komwe ulusi wamatabwa umachokera, kapena kuti umapatuka pang'ono. Apo ayi, mphamvu ya chinthucho imatha kuchepetsedwa kwambiri.

Zinthu zopangira ukalipentala polowera kapena pakona zimalumikizidwa wina ndi mnzake pogwiritsa ntchito mapulagi ndi notches - slats, zomatira, zomangira, tepi yachitsulo ndi zakunja.

Nthawi zambiri, zinthuzo zimalumikizidwa pogwiritsa ntchito mapulagi ndi notches. Mphamvu ya kugwirizana kwa zinthu ku pulagi ndi mortise kumadalira chinyezi cha zinthu ndi kulondola kwa pulagi ndi mortise.

Zinthu zambiri zomangira ukalipentala zimalumikizidwa ndi pulagi imodzi kapena iwiri yomwe imakhala ndi mawonekedwe osalala kapena ozungulira. Komabe, popanga zitseko, ma wedge ozungulira amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri - ma dowels olumikizira zinthu zowongoka komanso zopingasa, mafelemu a zitseko okhala ndi zoyika, ndi zina zambiri. Kulumikizana kumeneku sikuchepetsa mphamvu ya mankhwalawa, ndipo kumapereka ndalama zokwana 17% poyerekeza ndi njira zina.

Popanga zitseko, mipando yomangidwa m'chipinda, ma cabin okwera, etc. mbali za matabwa ndi zitsulo zimamangiriridwa ku pulagi iwiri, ndi pulagi ndi nsonga ndi pulagi ndi notch ndi dzino. Pazifukwa izi, matabwa ndi ma slats amalumikizidwa ndi mapulagi ozungulira ozungulira ndi notche kapena zikhomo zamatabwa (mkuyu 2, 3, 4)

20190928 104738 16

Chithunzi 2: Zitseko zomatira zophimbidwa ndi veneer

20190928 104738 17

Chithunzi 3: Tsatanetsatane wa malumikizidwe a matabwa

20190928 104738 18

Chithunzi 4: Kulumikizana kwa mbali zowongoka ndi zopingasa za chitseko chokhala ndi zikhomo zozungulira.

Kuti mankhwalawa akhale olimba komanso okhazikika mokwanira, payenera kukhala mgwirizano wina pakati pa miyeso ya pulagi ndi zinthu. Zotsatirazi ziwerengero zimalimbikitsidwa: m'lifupi mwa mtima uyenera kukhala wofanana ndi theka la m'lifupi mwa chinthu chomwe groove ili; kutalika kwa pulagi kuyenera kukhala kofanana ndi m'lifupi lonse la billet kapena bolodi kuchotsera mapewa a kugwirizana; makulidwe a pulagi weniweni amapangidwa kuchokera 1/3 mpaka 1/7. ndi makulidwe a pulagi iwiri kuchokera 1/3 mpaka 2/9 ya makulidwe a chinthucho; kukula kwa mapewa kuyambira 1/3 mpaka 2/7 pulagi yoyamba ndi 1/5 mpaka 1/6 ya makulidwe azinthu za pulagi iwiri; m'lifupi mwa mphako kwa pulagi iwiri ayenera kukhala wofanana makulidwe a pulagi palokha.

Pali mitundu yosiyanasiyana yolumikizirana. Zofunika kwambiri mwa izo zaperekedwa mu Chithunzi 5.

20190928 122009 1

Chithunzi 5: Mitundu yosiyanasiyana yolumikizira ukalipentala

Pochita, mbale nthawi zambiri zimamangiriridwa ndi mankhwala pambali, pa lilime ndi poyambira ndi ubongo. Pamene ma joists olumikizidwa kudutsa m'lifupi ndi guluu, kulumikiza mbali za joists ayenera moboola bwino, mwamsanga anasonkhana matabwa clamped ndi wedges. Mapulani opangidwa ndi glue ayenera kukonzedwa kumbali zonse ziwiri pa planer ya mbali ziwiri, kuti achotse kusagwirizana komwe kunapangidwa panthawi ya gluing.

Lilime ndi poyambira amatha kukhala amakona anayi, katatu, semi-circular, oval kapena dovetail. Njirayi imagwiritsidwa ntchito nthawi zambiri popanga mafelemu a zitseko, parquet, zinthu zowongoka komanso zopingasa pazitseko za zinyalala pamakina apadera - makina olumikizirana okha ndipo amafunikira matabwa ambiri, chifukwa chake ayenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito pokhapokha ngati pakufunika kutero.

Kulumikizana ndi chipboard kumagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga parquet pansi. Ubongo umapangidwa ndi matabwa ofewa. Zinthu zamawindo ndi zitseko, mipando yanyumba yomangidwa, zipinda zokwezera, ndi zina zambiri zimamangidwa ndi zomangira. Asanatembenuzidwe, zomangirazo ziyenera kudzoza ndi stearin, graphite kusungunuka mumafuta a masamba, mafuta ofanana.

M'malo omwe zomangira zidzabwera, mabowo ayenera kubowoledwa, kuya kwake pafupifupi kofanana ndi kuwirikiza kwa ulusi. Ngati, kumbali ina, ndikofunikira kulumikiza zinthu ziwiri za makulidwe akulu, ndiye kuti dzenje lofanana ndi m'mimba mwake la screw limabowoleredwa.

Maulumikizidwe pogwiritsa ntchito zomangira zitsulo (mkuyu 6) sagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri pochita, koma angagwiritsidwe ntchito polumikiza zinthu zowongoka ndi zopingasa, pazitseko zodzaza ndi zitseko zodzaza.

20190928 123217 1

Chithunzi 6: Kulumikiza pogwiritsa ntchito zomangira chitsulo

Kulumikizana pogwiritsa ntchito misomali sikugwiritsidwa ntchito polumikiza zinthu za ukalipentala. Mitengo yamatabwa imagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga mazenera, zitseko ndi zinthu zina zomangira zamatabwa, ndiye kuti zowonjezera zowonjezera pazinthu zomwe zimagwirizanitsa ndi kuteteza mapindikidwe a mafelemu osiyanasiyana panthawi yomwe akugwiritsidwa ntchito.

Chodziwika bwino cha kulumikizana kwa ukalipentala pogwiritsa ntchito mapulagi ndikuti amatha kupangidwa pogwiritsa ntchito guluu. Zolumikizira izi siziyenera kupangidwa popanda gluing. Zinthu zomwe zimamatira pamodzi ziyenera kukhala zolimba muzitsulo kwa maola 6 pansi pa 2 mpaka 12 kg / cm.2,
Zinthu zazikuluzikulu zopangidwa ndi ukalipentala zitha kusonkhanitsidwa pomatira zinthu zing'onozing'ono kuchokera kumtundu umodzi wamatabwa, komanso kuphatikiza mitundu yolemekezeka ndi matabwa wamba. ofukula ndi yopingasa zinthu mazenera, zitseko, mabokosi ndi mankhwala ena akhoza kupangidwa ndi glued coniferous matabwa, yokutidwa ndi matabwa a thundu 8 - 10 mm wandiweyani (mkuyu. 7). Ndikwabwino kumata zinthuzo ndikuziphimba ndi matabwa pogwiritsa ntchito zomatira za phenol-formaldehyde zomwe zimakhala zokhazikika m'madzi.

20190928 123217 11

Chithunzi 7: Zenera zomatira ndi zitseko, zophimbidwa ndi matailosi amatabwa olimba
Kusonkhanitsa zida za chimango ndi mafelemu okhala ndi mbale kumachitika pogwiritsa ntchito makina, ma hydraulic kapena pneumatic clamps.

Nkhani zokhudzana nazo