chidziwitso cha nkhuni

Kudziwa matabwa

Wood mwina, pafupi ndi mwala, chinthu choyamba chimene munthu amapangidwa adadzipangira zida ndi zowonjezera. Thandizo loyamba la munthu wosauka silinali sichingakhale china koma kalabu, mtengo, nthambi, kapena munga, zomwe zinasowa m'zaka mazana zapitazo.
 
Wood sanangokhala ndi mwayi kuposa ena m'mbuyomu zipangizo, akadali ndi primacy monga ambiri ankagwiritsa ntchitokunja zakuthupi. Komabe, ngati chida - makamaka zikachitika pulasitiki misa - yaponderezedwa, chifukwa unyinji wa "matabwa" zida monga zogwirira zida, matupi a planer, etc. iwo akupanga lero kuchokera ku mapulasitiki. Masiku ano, nkhuni zimagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati zakuthupi, kuyambira padenga mpaka ku chigoba mombali za ndege, kuchokera kumagulu akuluakulu kupita kuzithunzi zamatabwa.
 
Kudziwa matabwa
 
Poyang'ana koyamba, zikuwoneka zosavuta kwambiri kupeza njira yanu pakati pa mitengozipangizo. Komabe, izi sizili choncho: kwa kuzindikira, Kugawa, kugwiritsa ntchito ndi kukonza nkhuni ndikofunikira chidziwitso cha akatswiri.
 
Pamene akugwira ntchito motsogoleredwa ndi iye yekha, munthu amakumana ndi nkhuni monga ndi matabwa ocheka, i.e. theka-anamaliza mankhwala. Amayi otereanali: matabwa, matabwa, matabwa, matabwa ndi masilabu. Zida zonsezi akhoza kupangidwa ndi matabwa ofewa kapena olimba. Kusiyana pakati pa zipangizozi zonse m'munda wa processing ndi nthawikulemedwa ndi kwakukulu. Mitengo yofewa imadziwika ndi ulusi wake waukulu, mwachiwonekere ofooka dongosolo ndi compressibility mosavuta. Pafupifupi kwambiri matabwa ofewa omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi mlombwa. Mitengo ya Fir ndi yosavuta komanso yabwino akhoza kupangidwa. M'nyumba ndi kuzungulira nyumba, amagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga: zitseko, mawindo, mafelemu, etc. Akulu ankakonda kunena kuti ife nkhuni zofewa zimatsata moyo wake wonse, kuyambira pachibelekero mpaka bokosi.
 
Woodwood ndi yodzaza, yochulukirapo komanso yolemera. Kiyubiki imodzi decimeter ya roughwood imakhala yolemera 830 g, ndi voliyumu yomweyi matabwa ofewa okha 450 gr. Ulusi wolimba ndi wandiweyani kugawa ndikuwonetsa mizere yabwino. Mitengo yolimba imakhala yovuta kwambiri kugawanika ndipo pali zotupa zochepa. Chitsanzo chabwino cha kusonyeza makhalidwe hardwood ndi chogwirira cha tsache, chogwirira cha zida zosiyanasiyana ndi parquet. Mitengo yokhala ndi masamba onga singano, yobiriwira nthawi zonse, imakhala yofewa, komanso kuchokera deciduous, birch, poplar, msondodzi ndi linden amaonedwa kuti ndi ofewa.
 
Mitengo yowuma yokha yokhala ndi zosakwana 13% ndiyoyenera kukonzedwa. chinyezi. Wood lili chinyezi osati mwamsanga pambuyo kugwetsa kumakonzedwa (nthawi zambiri amanenedwa mwanthabwala "pamtengo uwu idayimbidwa posachedwapa ndi mbalame yakuda "), komanso pamene ikuchitikakagaluyo anali ndi mwayi kuyamwa chinyezi. Zimadziwika kuti nkhuni ndi hygroscopic, koma madzi omwa mwachangu amamasulidwa pang'onopang'ono kuchokera mmenemo amasanduka nthunzi. Mitengo yofewa iyenera kukhala yokalamba kwa zaka ziwiri mutadula zaka, ndi zolimba zinayi, kuti ziume mokwanira kuti zikonzedwe. Zoonadi, izi ndizochitika pamene kuyanika kumachitika mwaulere, i.e. mwachibadwa. Tsopano pali makina amakono apakompyuta ndi zowumitsa zowumitsa matabwa zomwe zimayang'anira ntchito yowumitsa nkhuni ndipo nthawi yopangira nkhuni zouma yabwino yachepetsedwa kambirimbiri.
 
Madzi akamasanduka nthunzi kuchokera ku nkhuni zonyowa - makamaka pamene kuyanika ndi kunyowetsa kangapo motsatizana, nkhunizo zimapunduka kwambirimbewa, "imagwira ntchito". Izi ndizomveka ngati mukuganiza choncho chinyontho chotengedwa ndi mtengo chikhoza kufika 130% ya zinthu zouma mtengo. Deformation makamaka zimadalira malochigawo chokhalitsa cha mtengowo, kumene matabwawo anadulidwa. Ngati kumvetsetsa kwa deformation sikungakhale, chifukwa cha malingaliro ena, kukhalabeo osakwanira, tiyeni choyamba tidziwe mayina a magawo omwe kupanga mapangidwe a mtengowo pogwiritsa ntchito Chithunzi 1.
 
matabwa kapangidwe
CHITHUNZI 1
 
Chithunzi 2 chikuwonetsa momwe matabwa ndi matabwa amapunthira kudula ku mbali imodzi ya thupi. Chofunika kwambiri khalidwe la nkhuni ndi: kuchuluka kwa nkhuni zonyowa kumachepa chifukwa cha kuyanika. Kugwira ntchito ndizomwe mukufunikira popanga zinthu kuchokera kuzinthu zamatabwa "zikwanira" bwino ndikuzidula mpaka kukula pang'ono m'malo mwa Zochepa. (Chitsanzo chimodzi chodziwikiratu: mumphika wamatabwa wantchito wapakhomo amathira madzi kuti mtengowo ufufute komanso kuti chimbudzi chifufute anasiya kutulutsa madzi. Gululo limatenga madzi ndikutupa kwambiri kuti ming'alu "itseke" ndipo chimbudzi sichikuthanso).
 
matabwa deformation
 
CHITHUNZI 2
 
A khalidwe mbali ya nkhuni ndi kuti kugonjetsedwa ndi m'njira ya ulusi, koma n'zosavuta wononga, pamene ndi perpendicular kwa malangizo ulusi umathyoka mosavuta. Kukana kumasiyana kwambiri ndi kumwerekera kuchokera ku kachulukidwe ndi kufanana kwa kugawa kwa fiber. Ulusi wokhuthala kupereka kukana kwakukulu, komanso m'malo otayirira komanso osagwirizanakukana kwa ulusi wofanana kumachepetsa.
 
Mitengo yochekedwa imadulidwa motalika molunjika komwe kumachokera njere, kupatulapo pamene chipikacho chinapotozedwa, grenade. Malo kukula kwa nthambi amazindikiridwa ndi mfundo, ndi kupindika ndi kutembenuka kwa ulusi.
 
Ngati matabwa odulidwawo ndi aakulu kuposa makulidwe ake, mpaka makulidwe a 40 mm amatchedwa bolodi, ndipo pamwamba pake makulidwewo khamu la anthu. Ngati matabwa ali ndi square cross-section, nthawi zonse polygonal kapena amakona anayi mpaka 10x10 miyeso imatchedwa nthiti, ndipo pamwamba pa miyesoyo pali matabwa. Ngati mtanda gawo ali ndi mawonekedwe ovuta kwambiri, monga, mwachitsanzo, okonzekera materi-chimango cha zithunzi, ndiye amatchedwa batten profiled.
 
Mitengo yomwe sinachekedwe m'mbali imakhala ndi imodzi mbali yosakonzedwa ndipo motero sangadyetsedwe hkukhala pafupi wina ndi mzake. Imakonzedwa, komabe, pambuyo pa kukwapula yosalala, ndipo ili ndi malo osalala, opanda ming'alu.
 
Muzochita, veneers, plywood ndi zaposachedwa: matabwa a mapanelo ndi matabwa ovekedwa. nthawi zambiri ama-matabwa molakwika amatchedwa veneer! Kawirikawiri veneer amapangidwa ndi kusenda mitengo ikuluikulu, yomwe imatembenuka, pafupifupi mofanana ndi pamene chinsalu chokulungidwa chikutsegulidwa. Sawed veneer se zopezedwa ndi kudula bolodi pambuyo bolodi pamtengo, ndi veneer peeled ndi mpeni, podula mbale ndi mpeni transversely kutalika kwa mtengo. Makulidwe a mbale amasiyanasiyana pakati pa 0,6-1,2 mm. Veneer popanda kuwonongeka, popanda mfundo, ndi mawonekedwe abwino ndi chovala chophimbira "nkhope", komanso chocheperako, mwina chowonongeka ndipo mosalekeza, chomatira, ndiye chowonekera cham'mbuyo. Zakunja, zowoneka ndipamwamba pa mipando yambiri yokutidwa ndi veneer, pamene mtundu wina wa veneer umagwiritsidwa ntchito, mwachitsanzo, kumbuyo mipando.
 
Mapulani a spruce amapangidwa ndi kumata ubweya wambiri wowumanir mbale pamwamba pa mzake. Ngati njira ziwirizi ndizofananahenna yachibadwa kapena diagonal, mphamvu ndi kulemera kwa angapo nthawi zimaposa mphamvu ndi kulemera kwa bolodi la makulidwe omwewo. Makulidwe mbale malinga ndi chiwerengero cha zigawo ndi: 3-5 mm kwa zigawo zitatu, 6-8 mamilimita asanu wosanjikiza ndi 9-12 mm kwa zisanu wosanjikiza.
 
Veneer ndi plywood amapangidwa kuchokera ku matabwa olimba okha chifukwa chake ndi olemera kuposa matabwa a makulidwe ofanana. Kulemera kwawo kumawonjezeka ndi chifukwa cha guluu.
 
Ma boardboard amapangidwa kuchokera ku matabwa ofewa kumamatira pakati pa matabwa awiri a veneer kapena plywood, zomwe zimawonjezera makulidwe, malo olimba ndi okongola amapezeka, ndi kulemera ndi mphamvu ndi zazikulu pang'ono kuposa matabwa ofewa a makulidwe ofanana. U m'makampani amipando, matabwa amagetsi agwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri.
 
matabwa ovala ndi matabwa matabwa (plywood, mapanelo matabwa, chipboards, matabwa olimba ulusi etc.) yokutidwa ndi matabwa pulasitiki misa. Amakhala ndi mbali imodzi kapena zonse ziwiri zosalala, zonyezimira komanso zosankha utoto (kutsanzira bolodi matabwa, etc.). Iwo sali kwenikweni otsika mtengo, ngakhale ndi chifukwa cha mphamvu zawo, maonekedwe ndi zosavuta kuyeretsa pamwamba ntchito yaikulu.
 
Ma matabwa olimba (fiber board) amapangidwa kuchokera ulusi wa hemp wophwanyidwa kapena mikwingwirima yofewa wothira utomoni yokumba, amene pambuyo matenthedwe processing ndi mbamuikha pansi kuthamanga mkulu mu mbale. Zachindunji kulemera kwawo ndikwambiri ndipo ndi matabwa olimba amatha kufika i 150% ya mphamvu yokoka yeniyeni ya madzi. Mambale awa nthawi zambiri amatchedwa mbale zopangira.
 
Ndipo potsiriza, gulu ili la mbale lilinso ndi dzenje mbale zopangidwa ndi lattice zopangidwa ndi matabwa a softwood, yokutidwa ndi mbale. Popeza sangadulidwe, kuchokera ku mbale izi zinthu zina zokha zimapangidwa, monga, mwachitsanzo, zitseko.
 

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