chemicals na polyplastics

Chemicals na polyplastics, kemịkalụ ụlọ, nrapado

Ịrụ ọrụ na chemicals na polyplasts
 
N'oge gara aga, a na-ewere kemistry dị ka "anwansi ojii", ebe taa anyị na-ezute ya na nzọụkwụ ọ bụla, ọbụna n'ụlọokike. Anyị maara na "Black Bull" ma ọ bụ ndị ọzọ anyị nwere ike iji ncha sachaa uwe n'ụzọ dị mfe. Ọ bụ maka ọtụtụ a maara na tetraethylol na-abawanye ọnụọgụ octane nke mmanụ ụgbọala. N'ezie, ihe ọmụma a adịghị eme ka mmadụ bụrụ onye na-aṅụ ọgwụ. Iji mee nke ahụ E kwuwerị, ka anyị mata isi ihe gbasara kemistri.
 
Ihe nwere ike imebi ihe ọzọ. nwere ihe dị iche iche, ụzọ anụ ahụ dị mfe (site na-ahọpụta, sifting, magnet, wdg) na-akpọ ngwakọta. Nke ahụ, kpam kpam ihe jikọrọ ọnụ, nke dị otú ahụ A pụghị imebi ụzọ dị mfe n'ime akụkụ nwere ihe dị iche iche a na-akpọ ogige.
 
Ngwakọta bụ ihe mejupụtara ụmụ irighiri ihe mejupụtara ya ihe ndị a na-ejikọta ya na njikọ kemịkal ụfọdụ. Njikọ ndị a anaghị ekwe ka nkewa ha dị mfe. Nbibi, ikewa nkekọ ndị ahụ chọrọ ike kemịkalụ ka ukwuu ntinye aka. Mgbe ahụ ụmụ irighiri ihe ndị ahụ na-agbaji n'ime ọcha atọm. Ruo ogologo oge, a na-eche na atom enweghị ike ikewa ọzọ. Na narị afọ anyị, nke mbụ chere na atọm nwere ọbụna nta nke elementrị ahụ ha dị iche na ibe ha ma n'ihe gbasara nha na ọkụ eletrik ebubo. Ihe kacha mma nke elementrị dị mma ebubo proton, neutron na-anọpụ iche na eletrọn na-adịghị mma.
 
Ọ na-ekere òkè na ogige niile nke ihe okike 92 naanị 15 ruo 20 ọcha.
 
Anyị na-atụle arọ nke atọm nke ihe ndị dị otú ahụ n'ụzọ na ha anyị na-atụnyere ugboro ole ha dị arọ karịa atọm nke mmewere kacha mfe nke hydrogen (dị ka nkọwa ọhụrụ nke 1/12 nke atom carbon si dị.
 
Ọ dịghị ihe ọ bụla n'ime ihe ndị ahụ nwere ike ịnọ naanị ya na nke ọzọ mmewere na aka ike, ihe ọ bụla quantities. O kwere omumeanyị na-atụle njikọ kemịkalụ nke atom hydrogen otu. Ya mere, hydrogen atom bụ monovalent. Atọm nke na-emepụta ngwakọta nwere otu atom hydrogen ọ bụkwa monovalent. Ọ bụrụ na ihe jikọrọ abụọ, atọ, anọ wdg. hydrogen atom mgbe ahụ ọ bụ; abụọ, atọ, anọ wdg. valence. Osmovalency bụ valency kachasị elu nwere ike ime otu mmewere. Otú ọ dị, e nwere ihe ndị ọzọ valencei ha bụ mgbanwe valences.
 
Ndị isi otu nke ogige bụ inorganic na organic njikọ. Ngwakọta organic nwere carbon, ebe na inorganic - na ihe ndị dị ụkọ - enweghị carbon.
 
Ihe kpatara ịdị adị nke ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ukwuu nke ogige organic nwere ike ijikọ carbon ọnụ atọm, ya bụ, na nhazi nke ụdọ carbon. (Aha organic ogige bụ n'ihi na mbụ nghọta na ha naanị ihe dị ndụ nwere ike imepụta.)
 
ACIDS bụ ihe na-emebi emebi nke dị na akpụkpọ ahụ ma ọ bụ n'ime afọ na-akpata nnukwu ọnya, dị ka ọkụ. Enwere ike ịmata acid dị mfe site na iji akwụkwọ litmus, n'ihi na litmus blue na-atụgharị uhie na acid. Mgbe ị na-arụ ọrụ na acid enyo nchekwa na roba gloves chọrọ. Ọ bụrụ na ọ bụ n'agbanyeghị ịkpachara anya, otu dobe acid dara na akpụkpọ ahụ anyị - nke mbụ ekwesịrị iji akwa akọrọ hichaa, wee saa ya n'okpuru mmiri na-asọ asọ na mmiri na n'ikpeazụ neutralize akara acid na ngwọta soda soda (foto 1).
 
njikwa acid
FOTO 1
 
BASES bụ mmeghachi omume nke metal oxides na mmiri. Alkalis bụ ntọala ndị na-agbaze mmiri ma nwee mmetụta corrosive. Enwere ike ịmata ha ngwa ngwa, n'ihi na nke ha mmetụta nke red litmus idei mmiri. Ha na-emebi emebi ihe ndi ozo. Ọnyá ndị si n'aka ha na-esi ike agwọta, Ọ dịkwa ike karịa ọnyá ndị si n'ịkwa ikona-emeso ya na acid. Iwu HTZ bụ otu ihe maka acid. Ọ bụrụ na akpụkpọ ahụ merụrụ ahụ, ekwesịrị iji acid diluted saa ya (na ihe atụ na acetic acid).
 
A na-emepụta SALTS site na mmeghachi omume nke bases na acids. Obere ma ọ bụ ha anaghị akpasu anụ ahụ iwe ma ọlị. Mgbe ị na-arụ ọrụ na nnu, ị kwesịrị kpachapụ anya, n'ihi na ụfọdụ bụ nsi.
 
Chemical ụlọ
 
Amara ya kemgbe ogologo oge, ọkachasị mgbe ị na-echekwa nrinke ihe.
 
Enwere ike kewaa ihe nchekwa n'ime:
 
1. Akụrụngwa na n'otu oge. ha na-enye ekpomeekpo ma na-echekwa ihe: sugar, nnu, mmanya, abụba, citric acid, tartaric acid acid.
 
2. Ihe maka ibibi microorganisms: saltpeter, glutamic acid, alum, mmiri ara ehi wayo, salicylic, benzoic acid acid na sodium benzoate.
 
3. Ihe ndị Pytian, agba na ngwa nri.
 
Sugar. Site n'itinye shuga 55% (sugar = C12H22O11) nye onye ngwaahịa (site na plums, raspberries, apricots, pears, apụl) na-agbakwunyeghị kemịkalụ ndị ọzọ, anyị nwere ike ichekwa ya kpamkpamrally (ụtọ). A naghị atụ aro ka ịgbakwunye shuga karịa 55%, n'ihi na sugar ga-kristal. Uru na-erughị 50% anaghị echekwa shuga. Ịtinye shuga na nri acidic isiokwu, naanị ị chọrọ ka sie ha obere oge, n'ihi na decomposition pụtaranke shuga.
 
Ya mere. Nnu tebụl (sodium chloride, NaCl) na-arụkwa ọrụ nụrụ ụtọ ma na-echekwa n'otu oge ahụ. Ikike mkpọ ọ bụ n'ihi hygroscopicity nke nnu (na-amịpụta mmiri). Ọ bụrụ na anụ nnu, nnu na-ejikọta ụfọdụ mmiri ọ bụghị naanị site na anụ kamakwa site na nje bacteria ma si otú ahụ na-ebibi ha. Na microorganisms ndị ọzọ enweghị ike. ịdị ndụ na-enweghị mmiri.
 
Saltpetre. (Potassium nitrate, KNO3). Nnu, ilu, ọcha, kristal ntụ ntụ. Ọ na-anọpụ iche. Maka canning 2,5 n'arọ anụ igbari 0,5 grams nke potassium nitrate na 100 g nke mmiri ọkụ. Iwere ihe ngwọta a weta anụ e gweriri mmiri. Ị ga-akpachara anya na dose ziri ezi, n'ihi na n'ọtụtụ buru ibu potassium saltpeter jdị nnọọ ilu na nsi.
 
Glutamic acid (amino-pyruvic acid, amino acid).glutaric acid, NOOS-SN2-CH2-SN(NH)2- N'oge na-adịghị anya bụ amino acid dị na ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ protein niile. A na-eji ya na-eme ka uche nke ofe dị iche iche na broths (Podravka, Knorr, wdg), ya bụ maka ichekwa anụ. A na-ewere 1 g nke glutamic acid gbazere kwa kilogram 5 nke anụ.
 
Alum (potassium-aluminom-sulfate, KAl (SO4)2 n'ime na steeti ya dị ọcha, a na-eji canning, ya bụ, maka hardening nke Ọdịdị nke softer mkpụrụ osisi na akwụkwọ nri, nke mere na ha adịghị dara iche n'oge canning, ebibi. Maka 1 n'arọ nke mkpụrụ osisi, ya bụ nke akwụkwọ nri, a na-eji 1,4 g nke alum.
 
Mmiri ara ehi wayo. Ọ nwere otu mmetụta dị ka alum Igbari 0,5 n'arọ nke quicklime na 5 lita mmiri na-ahapụ ka o guzo otu abalị, jiri nlezianya decant (wụsa ihe ruru 2/3 nke ngwọta doro anya) na mmiri ara ehi nke wayo [Ca (OH)2anyị na-etinye mkpụrụ osisi ma ọ bụ akwụkwọ nri maka nkeji 15-20 na njedebe ọ kpọrọ nkụRemo na mmiri ọkụ.
 
Citric acid. Citric acid dị na akwukwo nri zuru ebe niile na alaeze ukwu. A na-achọta ya n'ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ mkpụrụ osisi ọ bụla (Oxy-propane-tricarbonic acid, C6H8O7) Enweghị isi, kristal na-enweghị agba nke citric acid na-agbaze na ọkụ ndu 1 ka 1 g nke acid dị mkpa maka 2 n'arọ nke mkpụrụ osisi.
 
Tartaric acid. Enweghị agba, enweghị isi (C4H6O6), onye potassium nnu dị na mmanya. Omume nke acid a yiri ya citric acid.
 
Acetic acid. Enweghị agba, nwere isi dị nkọ, acid siri ike ihe na-emebi emebi (SN3N'oge na-adịghị). Ọ bụ nnukwu onye iro ebu na nje bacteria. N'elu ụfọdụ ntinye uche, na acidic gburugburu ebe obibi, nje bacteria enweghị ike ịdị ndụ. Ọ bụ ya mere ọtụtụ mgbe sacetic acid eji maka nchekwa. N'ụlọ ahịa a na-achọta n'ụdị dị iche iche (ike). Maka 1 kg ihe dị ka 2-3 deciliters nke 10% ezuru maka otu ngwaahịa ngwọta acetic acid. Acetic acid na-ebibi nnukwu ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ọla (ígwè, aluminum, ọla kọpa, zinc). Na ọla kọpa ma ọ bụ ngwakọta acetic acid nke zinc kpụrụ bụ nsi, ma nwee ike ije ozi dị ka nkwakọ ngwaahịa acetic acid akpa nke iko, seramiiki, enamel, plastik ma ọ bụ osisi.
 
Salicylic acid bụ ọcha, agịga-dị ka, crystalline ntụ ntụ, na-enweghị isi (C6H4(OH) KWESỊRỊ). Ọ bụ nsi cell, ọ na-ebibikwa ya nje bacteria na spores. N'ọtụtụ buru ibu, ọ na-egbukwa mmadụ organism, na-eji maka canning na obere, kpọmkwem ego ụfọdụ. A na-agbakwunye ihe kachasị na 1 n'arọ nke mkpụrụ osisibụ 0,8 g.
 
Benzoic acid dị ọcha, silk, acicular ma ọ bụ efere, ihe kristal (N6С5N'oge na-adịghị). Ọ na-ebibi ego ahụ nke ọmateria na spores. N'ọtụtụ buru ibu, ọ nwekwara mmetụta na-emerụ ahụ organism, na naanị 1 grams na-agbakwunyere 0,5 n'arọ nke ngwaahịa.
 
Adhesives
 
Ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ukwuu nke nrapado sịntetik na-emeri ahịa. Otú ọ dị, anyị ekwesịghị ịbụ ndị a ghọgbuo site na aha "universal gluu". Ndị a gluu dị mma ma ọ bụghị eluigwe na ala, naanị maka ụfọdụ iheụfọdụ dabara nke ọma, ụfọdụ adịghị mma.
 
gluu 
Anyị ga-edepụta ole na ole n'ime ihe nrapado kacha mkpa nwere ike iji banye n'ahịa ụlọ, na ndetu, nke ihe nwere ike iji  ọ kacha mma ịrapara na gluu.
 
Felt, (ọkpụkpụ, akpụkpọ anụ) na-eji akwụkwọ gluing, osisi, textiles, cellophane, yana gluing ndị a na akpụkpọ na iko.
 
Venzol bụ ihe mgbaze polystyrene, ya bụ nrapado ya. Oslm nke gluing ibe nke efere polystyrene, ya na benA na-ejikọta plexiglass, celluloid na cellophane na polystyrene na zol.
 
A na-eji iko mmiri eme ihe maka iko gluing na ike ihe, dị ka bakelite nwere textiles, akwụkwọ, ọla, poselin na ceramik, ya bụ n'etiti ha.
 
Chloroform bụ ihe mgbaze, ya bụ nrapado maka plexi-iko. Enwere ike jikọta Plexiglas na chloroform na iko, seramiiki, poselin, polystyrene na celluloid.
 
Boropor glues roba ka roba, roba ka metal, akpụkpọ anụ, iko, poselin, osisi, textile. Ọzọkwa akpụkpọ na metal, ike na-adịghị ike na iko na osisi.
 
Oho "universal" nrapado ejirila nke ọma mee ya gluing nke iko, poselin, osisi, plastic, metal.
 
A na-ejikarị Risoprene (roba artificial) eme ihe gluing nke roba na akpụkpọ anụ. Maka gluing linoleum, podolite, vinaz osisi, parquet na ihe na-atụ aro.
 
A na-eji Savanol maka gluing akpụkpọ anụ, roba, ultrakapeeti, kapeeti, textiles, osisi, salonite na galvanized mpempe akwụkwọ.
 
Neostik na gluu "universal". Enwere ike iji ya mee ihe gluing dị iche iche ihe; akpụkpọ anụ, osisi, roba, textiles wdg.
 
Drvofix bụ nrapado maka osisi, ogwe osisi (panel, chipboard, wdg). styrofoam na osisi, parquet na ntọala osisi, wdg.
 
Teleol (neoprene). Glue maka gluing akpụkpọ anụ, roba, plastiknke ihe, textiles, osisi, PVC floor coverings Ltd.
 
Krautoxin (Kunstsoff aus der Tube). Akụkụ abụọ gluu, ebe a na-ebu ụzọ gwakọta ihe abụọ ahụ wee gwakọta ya n'ime ọkara elekere ha na-eji. Igwe mara mma, nkume, iko, poselin, polyplastics thermostable (Bakelite), wdg.
 
Epoxy-glues, dị ka: ARALDIT (Switzerland), ERON (Shell), EPILOX (Buna-werke), EPORESIT (Hungary), ha na-anọ mgbe ụfọdụ n'ahịa, n'ụdị ntụ ntụ, mado, osisiee, emulsion. Ha bụ ezigbo adhesives, karịsịa mgbe ị na-ejikọta metal ya na ọla, ya bụ roba, akpụkpọ anụ, wdg.
 
Desmodur, desmoden bụ adhesives polyurethane, tinye mgbe gluing metal na roba, i.e. metal na igwe.
    

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