chisel

Kev ua haujlwm ntawm chisel, drilling, npaj

Chisel ua haujlwm

 
Mastering hauv tsev yog tsis yooj yim sua yam tsis ua hauj lwm nrog ib tug chisel yuav tsum tau ua tiav. Joints ntawm rooj tog qhov chaw los ntawmlub zog ntawm cov qhov thiab cov ntsaws ruaj ruaj, txhim kho cov xauv, kho cov pob khawm nyob rau ntawm lub qhov rooj nws yog tsis yooj yim sua ua tsis tau ib tug chisel.
 
Rau kev ua haujlwm nruab nrab ntawm ntau hom chisels nws yog qhov tsim nyog muaj txog peb lossis plaub. Chisels nrog ntau nyuaj profiles (oblique, crescent-shaped, thiab lwm yam), siv los ntawm sculptors thiab cov kws ntoo ua cov rooj tog stylish.
 
Lub chisel hniav yog ua los ntawm steel, thiab kov yog ua los ntawm steel yog ntaus rau nws - ua los ntawm ntoo. Qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws ntawm cov chisel yog cov hniav, uas feem ntau yog ntawm lub kaum sab xis ntawm 25 ° (Daim duab 1, ntu 1).
 
Feem ntau siv chisels yog:
 
tiaj tus chisel nrog ib seem rectangular,
 
flat chisel nrog bevelled npoo,
 
hollowed ntoo chisel thiab
 
ntev chisel rau qhib.
 
Lub chisel kov yuav tsum tau muab los ntawm sab saum toj nrog ib lub nplhaib hlau uas suav nrog ib qho me ntsis nqaim sab sauv tuav kom tus kov tsis tawg thaum ntaus nrog ib tug ntoo raujyog blooming.
 
Cov hniav ntawm lub chisel yog ncaj (nws tsuas yog nyob rau hauv lub hollow chisel convex) thiab yuav tsum tau tuav hauv lub dav hlau txiav. Beveled ib feem lub chisel yuav tsum tig mus rau ib feem ntawm cov ntoo raug txiav, pov tseg (daim duab 1, ntu 2-5).
 
chisel ua haujlwm
DUAB 1
 
Thaum ua hauj lwm nrog ib tug chisel, xyuam xim rau cov kev taw qhia ntawm lub fiber ntawm ntoo, vim hais tias nrog lub tshuab muaj zog, cov ntoo tuaj yeem tawg mus rau ntawm tsob ntoohenna. (daim duab 1, ntu 6,7).
 
Thaum peb xav tau chisel ib qho chaw so rau lub ntsaws, ua ntej peb yuav tsum tau txiav ib feem uas yog ib txwm mus rau cov kev taw qhia ntawm lub fiber thiab xwb ces qhov uas yog parallel mus rau fiber ntau (daim duab 1, ntu 2, 2/a, 3, Z/ib). Peb yuav tsum xub muab cov khoom tso rau ntawm qhov chaw ruaj khov lub hauv paus kom tsis txhob muaj kev vibrations thaum lub sijhawm ua haujlwm, nruj kom ntau li ntau tau ze li qhov ua tau rau qhov raug txiav, yam tsawg kawg thaum ua haujlwm khoom siv thiab txav mus los. Lub chisel yuav tsum tuav ruaj khov thaum ua haujlwm, tsis yog rau cov hlau, tab sis rau tus kov, tuav nws nrog koj cov ntiv tes.
 
Cov squares tuaj yeem txiav nrog ib txoj hlua nqaim ntev ntxaum qhov rau lub ntsaws. Yog hais tias lub ntsaws yuav tsum dhau los ntawm cov khoom siv ces nws yog qhov zoo dua los qhib lub qhov ntawm ob sab alternately. Tom qab ntawd qhov txiav qhov tob yuav me dua ntawm ob sab.
 
Lub semicircular chisel yog siv los txiav lub voj voog qhib thiab rau tshem tawm cov npoo ntse ntawm cov ntoo.
 
Ib feem ntawm lub chisel opposite lub hniav yog taw tes thiab square-puab, thiab ua haujlwm rau "implantation" hauv tus kov. Qhov chaw tshaj plaws Lub chisel point yog lub tapered ib feem hauv qab ntawm tus kov. Thaum nyob hauv qhov chaw ntawd lub chisel so, nws yuav siv tsis tau rau kev ua hauj lwm ntxiv. Yog Yog tias lub chisel kov tsis ua haujlwm, nws tuaj yeem hloov tau yooj yim. Yog yog tias cov hniav puas lawm, nws tuaj yeem rov ua duativ thaiv
 
Tus kov yog kho nyob rau hauv xws li ib tug txoj kev uas lub chisel yog nias nyob rau hauv thawj mus rau hauv tus kov nrog rau qhov kawg taw tes, ces tuav tus kov thiab tuav nws yog nyob rau hauv huab cua, ntaus tus yog nrog rauj ob peb zaugumbilical ib feem ntawm tus kov.
 

Drilling

Koj yuav tsum paub yuav ua li cas xyaum! Ntawm lub ntsej muag ntawm nws, drilling zoo li qhov zoo tshaj plawskev ua haujlwm yooj yim hauv woodworking, tab sis hauv kev xyaum nws yog tsuas yog tias koj muaj lub cuab yeej zoo. Qhov tsim nyog tshaj plaws lub cuab tam rau drilling qhov rau screws thiab ntsia hlau yog ib rab koob xyaum. Txhawm rau tho qhov loj dua, koj xav tau ib lub laum, vim ua haujlwm nrog rab koob loj dua los yog twist xyaum xav tau qee qhov kev coj ua (Daim duab 2).
 
qhov drilling
DUAB 2
 
Vim peb tsis tuaj yeem muaj tag nrho lawv hauv peb lub rooj cob qhia me me cuab yeej, nws yog qhov zoo tshaj yog tias peb muab ib qho kev xyaum tes nyob rau hauv lub npe "American". Qhov kev xyaum no tuaj yeem ua tau ob qho tib si nrog ob qho tib si kauv thiab me me twist xyaum. Rau cranking vim lub gearing, nws tsis siv ntau kev siv zog, kom txawm tias cov neeg tsis tau pib tuaj yeem ua tau. Cia peb teem nws thaub qab phaj nyob rau hauv cov khoom peb tab tom drilling, tsis hais seb qhov drilling yog ua los ntawm tes los yog nrog lwm yam xyaum (račucia peb hais tias lub laum me ntsis nws thiaj li mus dhau ntawm cov khoom) thiab tag nrho rautuav ib tug khov kho kom lub laum tsis ntes cov khoom thiab nws pib tig nws.
 
Ib txwm xaiv tus lej qis ntawm cov kiv puag ncig rau drilling ntoo. Yog hais tias peb ua hauj lwm nrog ib tug hluav taws xob laum thiab nyob rau ntawm tus tsawg tshaj plaws ntawm kev hloov pauv, qhov drilling yuav tsum tau cuam tshuam txhua 15-20 vib nas this. Pri nrog ceev ceev drilling, ntoo tuaj yeem ua kom sov heev kom nws hloov xim thiab txawm ntes hluav taws. Suab nrov, zoo pa taws kab txaij los yog tsis hnov ​​tsw ntawm hlawv hav zoov ceeb toom txog nws. Ib ntus tshem tawm me ntsis ntawm cov khoom thaum drilling tsis tsuas yog txias lub laum twb pab rub lub nti tawm ntawm lub qhov. Lub taub hauIb lub nti me me hauv lub qhov zoo heev txo kev ua haujlwm qhov drilling.
 
Ua ntej pib drilling, qhov chaw yuav tsum tau drilled yuav tsum tau me ntsis indented nrog ib tug ntsia thawv los yog ib lub qhov punch. Qhov no yog tshwj xeeb tshaj yog tsim nyog rau beginnersoh Qhov pib indentation - nyob rau hauv cov nqe lus tshaj lij, ib "kirner" - nws pab tshem tawm qhov xyaum thaum nws thawj lub kiv puag ncig. Cia peb ua tib zoo saib tias lub hau ntawm lub laum me ntsis tsis yog ib sab beveled, vim hais tias nyob rau hauv cov ntaub ntawv no ib tug loj dua yuav tau txais tom qab drilling qhib tshaj qhov xav tau.
 
Txiav ib lub voj voog loj dua los ntawm cov khoom nyias nyias thiab hu ua drilling, txawm hais tias nws yog hom kev ua haujlwm sib txawv kiag li. Ib rab riam adjustable qhov yog ib qho cuab yeej. Rau "drilling" nrog qhov no Nrog lub cuab yeej, nws yog ib qho tsim nyog yuav tsum tau ua ntej tho ib lub qhov me me nyob rau hauv nruab nrab ntawm qhov kev txiav tawm  qhov thiab muab qhov taw tes ntawm rab riam nyob rau ntawd. Kho riam raws li xav tau nrug raws li txoj kab uas hla ntawm lub qhov peb xav xyaum. Teb chaws USA peb tig cov hniav ob peb zaug thiab nws pib txav mus  zoo li ib rab koob ntawm cov ntaub ntawv gramophone, tab sis ib txwm nyob ntawm tib qhov deb los ntawm qhov chaw, txiav lub phaj (daim duab 3).
 
txiav ib lub voj voog
 
DUAB 3
 
Yog tias cov ntoo yuav tsum tau nkag mus thaum lub sijhawm drilling, qhov drilling yuav tsum tau ua pib nrog lub ntsej muag ntawm cov khoom. Qhov qhib ntawm sab ntawd tseem zoo nkauj, txawm nrog cov npoo ntse thaum nyob rau sab nraud ib qho kev xyaum me ntsis kua muag cov khoom thaum xuas nrig ntaus. Yog peb laum ib lub qhov rau ib tug ntsia hlau nrog ib tug countersunk los yog lenticular taub hau ces ib tug xyaum me ntsispeb yuav tsum tau hollow tawm sab sauv ntawm lub qhov rau lub taub hau ntsia hlau. Yog tias peb tsis muaj kev xyaum tshwj xeeb rau qhov ntawd, ib tus yuav ua ib tug thicker xyaum, sab saum toj ntawm uas peb yav tas los av rau ib tug loj lub kaum sab xis. Kev ua haujlwm drilling yuav tsum ua tib zoo kom tsis txhob mus tob heevleej twg nkag mus rau cov khoom siv.
 
Yog hais tias lub qhov tsis dhau los ntawm cov khoom, ces lub laum yog pre-drilledtab sis peb yuav tsum kos lub qhov chaw uas peb xav kom nws nkag mus cov khoom siv (xws li xim xaum, ntsia thawv polish, thiab lwm yam). Yog lawm peb yuav tsis tas yuav tshem tawm lub laum me ntsis thiab ntsuas qhov tob ntawm lub qhov (Daim duab 4).
 
kos lub laum me ntsis
DUAB 4
 

Kev npaj

Txhawm rau zam kev npaj, tsuas yog qhov ua tau peb yuav cov khoom uas twb npaj lawm. Raws li cov khoom siv tsis tuaj yeem ib txwm tau, thiab feem ntau peb yuav tsum ua cov npoo, qhov zoo tshaj plaws yog tias peb kuj muaj grater nyob rau hauv lub tsev rhiav. Peb xav tau peb grater: ib qho rau kev ua haujlwm ntxhib (loj grater), ib qho rau fine processing thiab ib tug grater rau grooves. Ntawm peb qhov no, peb tuaj yeem ua tau tawm ntawm lub grater loj, vim hais tias peb yuav tsis tshua muaj nyob rau hauv qhov teeb meem los ua cov loj, ntxhib nto. Thiab thaum twg peb yuav tsum peb ua haujlwm, peb tuaj yeem siv lub grater rau kev ua haujlwm zoo. Tau kawg, txoj haujlwm yuav siv sijhawm ntev dua.
 
Lub plawv ntawm lub grater yog ib tug zoo-sharpened riam (daim duab 5) nrog ib tug ranrog cov hniav. Lub kaum sab xis yog 25 °. Cov riam yuav tsum tau siv thaum ua haujlwm tiv thaiv ntaus ib yam khoom hlau, xws li. tus ntsia thawv tsis nco qab los yog nws qia tuaj yeem ua rau cov hniav puas thiab ua rau nws tsis muaj txiaj ntsigxav tau. (Yog tias peb tso siab rau kev npaj rau tus tswv thiab yog rau peb li vim tsis muaj kev saib xyuas, qee tus ntsia thawv zais lossis ib feem ntawm cov khoom siv tau raug tso rau hauv macov ntaub ntawv, rau txhua yam xws li tus nqi yuav tsum tau them rov qab saws los yog planer riam).
 
planar tsos
 
DUAB 5
 
Cov hniav ntawm grater yuav tsum tau sharpened kom loj li sai tau sib tsoo pob zeb kom cov hniav tsis dented, i.e. yog pom tsis txais lub roundness ntawm whetstone. Peb tuaj yeem ua kom ntse siv cov cuab yeej pabcuam, ua los ntawm lub rooj tsavxwm ntawm lub kaum sab xis ntawm 25 °, uas peb tuaj yeem tuav rab riam thaum sharpening, vim hais tias nws yog ib qho nyuaj rau ib tug tej craftsman txiav txim siab los ntawm lub qhov muag lub kaum sab xis ntawm 25 °.
 
Tom qab sharpening riam ntawm ib puag ncig whetstone, cov npoo ntawm cov hniav yuav tsum tau leveled ntawm ib tug ca whetstone. Peb yuav tsum tsis txhob hnov ​​qab tias txoj hauj lwm ntawm lub grater yog muab rau saum npoo Txhim kho cov laug cam kom zoo nkauj li sai tau, thiab tsuas yog hauv pem teb tuaj yeem ua tau li ntawd yog tias cov hniav yog qhov zoo tagnrho. Ib lub pob zeb sib tsoo tuaj yeem tau txais los ntawm cov khw muag khoom kho vajtse. Riam sharpening nyob rau hauv ntub dej ib lub pob zeb tiaj tus yuav tsum tau ua los ntawm kev rub cov hniav (raws li hauv ntawm ib rab riam zoo tib yam) ntawm lub pob zeb nyob rau hauv lub voj voog. Ntse ntug cov hniav yuav tsum tau muab tshem tawm los ntawm kev sib tsoo kom lawv tsis nyob rau hauv cov khoom sab laug ntse cim thaum npaj. Leej twg yog ib tug beginner no nws yuav tsum txaj muag rau "nyem" qhov kev paub no los ntawm qee tus tswv.
 
Lub riam ntawm lub planer yog tsau nrog ib tug ntoo wedge nyob rau hauv lub qhib ntawm lub planertus menyuam. Thaum kho, tuav rab riam thiab hlais nrog koj tus ntiv tes xoo tes. Nrog lub tshuab me me ntawm rauj, uas peb tuav ntawm peb sab tes xis, ntawmwb txav riam. Qhov no yuav tsum tau ua kom zoo thaum tuav lub grater nyob rau hauv cov huab cua nrog xibtes thiab lwm yam ntiv tes ntawm sab laug tes.
 
Cov riam yuav tsum tsuas yog lo tawm me ntsis ntawm qhov qis ntawm lub grater, thiab cov hniav nws yuav tsum tau yaug nrog lub underside ntawm lub planer. Nws yog qhov zoo tshaj rau thaum ntxig, rab riam tsis protrude los ntawm qhov qis ntawm lub grater txhua tias qhov kev hloov ntawm rab riam yog nqa tawm nrog me me tshuab ntawm rauj tom qab kho cov kab ntoo. Yog hais tias rab riam tawm ntau dhau, nws tsis nrawm ua hauj lwm vim nws yooj yim heev grips cov khoom heev heev. Nws yooj yim dua rab riam pab cuam ntau dua li rub nws rov qab. Tseem ceeb yog kais rab riam rau sab ntawm cov hniav kom coj tau qhov tseeb txoj hauj lwm. Qhov kev ua haujlwm no tau ua dua nyob rau hauv "cua" tuav Nyob rau tib lub sijhawm, lub grater nyob rau sab laug tes (daim duab 6).
 
kev kho ntawm rab riam planer
DUAB 6
 
Thaum peb xav tshem riam, ob peb xav tau ntaus lub nraub qaum ntawm tus planer lub cev nrog rauj ob peb zaug, tau kawg thaum tsa.
 
Ib qho tseem ceeb ntawm cov grater yog cov ntxig (cov xeb tawg), uas yog siv rau riam yog tsau nrog ib tug ntsia hlau. Lub luag haujlwm ntawm qhov ntxig yog los nws rhuav tshem cov pob zeb hauv pem hauv ntej ntawm rab riam, txwv tsis pub nws yuav qhib rau scum sai choked.
 
Kev npaj ua haujlwm ua haujlwm raws li hauv qab no: nrog sab tes xis tuav lub nraub qaum kawg ntawm lub grater kom tus ntiv tes xoo nyob rau sab laug, thiab lwm tus ntiv tes ua ke rau sab xis ntawm lub peg; tuav koj sab tes laugmo grater rau sab saum toj - pem hauv ntej kawg ntawm tus kov, thiab peb tswj lub gratervol. Sab tes xis muab siab txaus ua hauj lwm. Peb khawb txav lub grater sib npaug rov qab thiab tawm hauv cov hlab ntsha lojtab sis, tsis nias ntau dhau ntawm lub grater. Thaum thim rov qab, me ntsis khoov lub grater rau ntawm ntug, yog li txuag riam.
 
Koj yuav tsum nco ntsoov npaj raws li cov kev taw qhia ntawm cov ntoo fibers, vim tsis txawm tias qhov zoo tshaj plaws ntxig tuaj yeem txuag tau lub rooj tsavxwm lossis lath los ntawm snagyog tias qhov kev npaj ua tiav txoj kev rov qab. Tsis tas yuav khuv xim kev siv zog kho lub rooj tsavxwm kom raug. Yog qhov kev taw qhia hloov fibers, peb yuav tsum nco ntsoov tso lub grater nyob rau hauv cov kev taw qhia ntawm fiber, yog li ntawd peb yuav ib txwm npaj nyob rau hauv ib txoj kev thiab nyob rau hauv lwm txoj kev hauv qab fiber ntau (Daim duab 7).
 
Qhov nyuaj tshaj plaws yog kev npaj ntawm qhov chaw hla ntu, vim riam yuav tsum txiav cov fibers crosswise thiab lov lawv, nws tawg. Qhov no yog qhov kawg ntawm cov laug cam. Thaum zoo li no yuav tsum tau npaj los ntawm cov npoo sab nraud mus rau nruab nrab. Qhov no tsis yog tshwj xeeb tshaj yog yooj yim ua hauj lwm vim hais tias lub grater jerks ob txhais tes (daim duab 7, nruab nrab).
 
kev npaj
 
DUAB 7
 
Lub grater ntxuav yog siv rau leveling planed nto. Nws yog ib daim duab plaub steel nrog ib tug ntse ntug, uas tuav nws nrog ob txhais tes, rub nws hla ntawm qhov chaw npaj thiab nyob rau hauv txoj kev no nws ntxuav cov residual unevenness.
 
Planing xav kom lub workpiece yuav tsum tau machined nruj nreem clamps thiab khiav nrees nyob rau hauv txoj kev npaj, vim hais tias thaum thaum lub sij hawm ua muaj ib tug muaj zog jerk. Yog li, cia peb teem lub ntsiab lus ntawm lub rooj ua haujlwm, yog tias peb tsis muaj lub rooj zaum ntoo ntoo, thiab muab tso rau tes tuav nws rau ntawm lub hau. Peb yuav tsum tsis txhob zaum ntawm lub roojpeb xav tau ib lub rooj polished nrog nyias ob txhais ceg, tab sis peb yuav tsum cia peb xaiv qhov hnyav dua, npog chav ua noj rooj. Cia peb lean ntawm lub rooj ntawm phab ntsa los yog, txawm zoo dua, nyob ib sab ntawm lub rooj tsavxwm ua tiav. Txawm li cas los xij, qhov no, muaj kev phom sij uas tus ntiv tes xoo ntawm peb sab tes laug yuav tawg vim inertia, nws tau daig ntawm phab ntsa thiab lub ntsis.
 
Ib qho kev daws teeb meem: cia peb tso nws ntawm lub rooj ua haujlwm thiab nws ua ib lub tsev pheeb suab uas npog nrog ib daim ntaub tuab rau cov npoo ntawm lub rooj thiab cov hooves tsis sib tsoo tsis tsoo phab ntsa maj mam. Ua haujlwm tam sim no peb fasten daim nrog clamps rau lub rooj npog nrog ib daim pamvol. Peb kuj tuaj yeem muab ib qho nyias nyias ntawm cov npoo ntawm lub qhov (socket) thiab phab ntsa ib daim board (Daim duab 7, hauv qab).
 
Yog hais tias peb npaj qhov cross-section ntawm fibers, lub workpiece Cia peb clamp nws hauv mangels kom cov fibers mus vertically. Kaw txhais tes yuav tsum tsis txhob muaj tej yam khoom uas ua tau ua mob peb tes.
 
Rasps thiab cov ntaub ntawv rau kev npaj
 
Nrog rau cov khoom siv rau kev ua ntaub ntawv thiab kev npaj, qhov chaw tuaj yeem ua tau kev ua ntoo yam tsis muaj kev paub tshwj xeeb. Hauv qhov no accessories muaj xws li ib tug rasp thiab ib tug ntoo ntaub ntawv. Qhov chaw ua haujlwm yuav tsum tau kho ntawm lub luj tshib qhov siab (daim duab 8). Peb tuav cov ntaub ntawv nrog rau sab laug tes rau lub ntsis, thiab nrog rau sab tes xis rau tus kov, thiab nias nws ntawm qhov khoom uas tau npaj, peb rub rov qab zoo li qhov no tias tag nrho qhov ntev ntawm cov ntaub ntawv hla saum npoo kom polishedua. Thaum leveling qhov chaw ntawm qhov chaw thiab luv luv strokes nrog ib daim ntawv lawv coj mus rau lub hom phiaj. Lawv feem ntau ua tiav nrog cov ntaub ntawv ntug, drilled qhib, rounding, xov thiab ua cross-section ntawm fibers. Thiab ntawm no muaj qhov ua tau tias ib daim me me lossis loj dua ntawm ntoo tawg. Yog ua tiav daim ntes tau ntawm ob daim ntoo zoo sib xws, txo sthiab muaj peev xwm tawg cov npoo.
 
kev kho ntawm lub lath rau kev npaj thiab ua ntaub ntawv
DUAB 8
 
Ntoo cob thiab me me shavings sai clog cov hniav cov ntaub ntawv, thiab qhov ntawd yog qhov nyuaj los ntxuav. Ib txoj hauv kev los ntxuav cov ntaub ntawv yog siv cov hlau txhuam. Txawm li cas los, ib tug hlau txhuam nws puas tsuaj rau cov hniav ntawm cov ntaub ntawv, thiab kev ntxuav tseem tsis tau XNUMX%. BoLwm txoj kev ntxuav yog tsau cov ntaub ntawv hauv dej kub thiab tom qab ntawd yog ntxuav nrog ib tug zoo tib yam txhuam. Ua li no, peb kuj raug tshem tawmla thiab shavings ntawm cov ntaub ntawv yas. Tom qab xws li ntxuav, ua ntaub ntawv peb yuav tsum so thiab qhuav, txwv tsis pub nws yuav xeb. Yog ua ntaub ntawv yuav tsis siv sijhawm ntev, peb tuaj yeem rub nws nrog ib txheej nyias ntawm cov roj, uas peb yuav tshem tawm ua ntej rov siv dua los ntawm kev sau qee qhov pov tseg.

Cov lus hais txog