tsiri

Kayan aiki, hakowa, shiryawa

Kayan aiki

 
Jagora a gida ba shi yiwuwa ba tare da yin aiki da chisel ba da za a yi gaba daya. Haɗuwa da kayan daki ta hanyarikon ramummuka da matosai, shigar da makullai, daidaitawa hinges a kan ƙofar ba shi yiwuwa a yi ba tare da amfani da chisel ba.
 
Don matsakaicin aiki na nau'ikan chisels daban-daban ya zama dole suna da kusan uku ko hudu. Chisels tare da ƙarin bayanan martaba masu rikitarwa (oblique, crescent-shaped, da dai sauransu), amfani da sculptors da kafintoci don yin kayan ado masu salo.
 
An yi ruwan wurgar da karfe, kuma abin rike da karfe ne an buge shi - an yi shi da itace. Mafi mahimmancin ɓangaren chisel shine ruwa, wanda yawanci a kusurwar 25 ° (Hoto 1, sashi na 1).
 
Mafi amfani da chisels sune:
 
lebur chisel tare da sashin rectangular,
 
lebur chisel mai dunƙule gefuna,
 
tuwon kafinta mai rami da
 
dogon chisel don buɗewa.
 
Dole ne a ba da hannun chisel daga sama tare da zobe na ƙarfe wanda ya haɗa da ɗan ƙaramin yanki na sama iyawa don kada hannun ya karye lokacin da aka buge shi da guduma na katakoyana fure.
 
Wurin kaskon yana miƙewa (yana cikin ɓangarorin chisel ne kawai convex) kuma ya kamata a riƙe shi a cikin jirgin saman yanke. Bangaranci chisel ya kamata ya fuskanci ɓangaren itacen da ake yankewa. fitar (fis. 1, part 2-5).
 
kayan aiki
HOTO 1
 
Lokacin aiki tare da chisel, kula da jagorancin fiber na itace, saboda tare da bugun da ya fi karfi, itacen zai iya fashe a hanyar bishiyarhenna. (fis. 1, sashi na 6,7).
 
Lokacin da muke son yanke hutu don filogi, da farko dole ne mu yanke sashin da yake al'ada zuwa jagorancin fiber kuma kawai sai bangaren da ya yi daidai da zaren (fig. 1, part 2, 2/a, 3, Z/a). Dole ne mu fara sanya kayan a kan m surface tushe don kauce wa girgiza yayin aiki, ƙarfafa gwargwadon yiwuwar kamar yadda zai yiwu a kusa da sashin da aka yanke, aƙalla a lokacin aiki abu da motsi. Ya kamata a riqe guntu da ƙarfi yayin aiki, a'a ga sashin karfe, amma ga hannu, kama shi da yatsun hannu.
 
Za a iya yanke murabba'ai tare da dogon kunkuntar chisel ramuka masu zurfi don filogi. Idan filogi yana buƙatar wucewa ta cikin kayan to yana da kyau a bude ramin a bangarorin biyu a madadin. Zurfin yankan zai zama karami a bangarorin biyu.
 
Ana amfani da chisel na semicircular don yankan buɗewar madauwari da don cire kaifi gefuna na itace.
 
Bangaren chisel daura da ruwa mai nuni da siffa mai murabba'i. kuma yayi hidima don "dasa" a cikin rike. Wuri na kowa Makin chisel shine sashin da aka zayyana a ƙasan rikewa. Lokacin a wannan wuri chisel ya karye, ya zama mara amfani don ƙarin aiki. Idan Idan hannun chisel ya gaza, ana iya maye gurbinsa cikin sauƙi. Idan idan ruwan ya lalace, ana iya sake kaifikarewa
 
Ana daidaita ma'auni ta hanyar da za a danna chisel a farkon a cikin hannun tare da ƙarshen mai nuni, sa'an nan kuma kama hannun kuma riƙe shi yana cikin iska, buga guduma sau da yawabangaren cibiya na rike.
 

Yin hakowa

Kuna buƙatar sanin yadda ake rawar soja! A fuskarsa, hakowa alama ce mafi kyauaiki mafi sauƙi a cikin aikin katako, amma a aikace shi ne kawai idan kana da kayan aiki daidai. Mafi mahimmanci kayan aiki don hako ramuka don sukurori da kusoshi shine rawar allura. Don haƙa manyan ramuka, kuna buƙatar rawar jiki, saboda aiki tare da manyan allura drills ko karkatarwa yana buƙatar wasu ayyuka (Hoto 2).
 
hakowa
HOTO 2
 
Tunda ba za mu iya samun su duka a cikin ƙaramin bitar mu ba kayan aiki, zai fi kyau idan muka samar da rawar hannu ɗaya da aka sani karkashin sunan "Amurka". Wannan rawar na iya yin duka biyu tare da duka karkace da kuma karami darrusa. Domin cranking saboda gearing, ba ya ɗauka da yawa kokarin, ta yadda ko da wanda bai sani ba zai iya rike shi. Mu saita shi farantin baya a ƙarƙashin kayan da muke hakowa, ko da kuwa ko da hannu ne ake yin hakowa ko da wani rawar soja (račubari mu ce cewa rawar soja zai ƙarshe ta hanyar kayan) kuma duka donrik'e daya dak'i don kada rawar jiki ya kama kayan kuma ya fara juyowa.
 
Koyaushe zaɓi ƙaramin adadin juyi don hako itace. Idan muka yi aiki tare da rawar lantarki kuma a mafi ƙarancin lamba na juyin juya hali, ya kamata a katse hakowa kowane 15-20 seconds. Pri tare da saurin hakowa, itacen zai iya zafi sosai har ya canza kala har ma da kama wuta. Sauti mai kaifi, hayaki mai kyau ratsi ko kamshin dajin da ke ƙonawa ya yi gargaɗi da shi. Lokaci-lokaci cire bit daga kayan lokacin da hakowa ba kawai sanyaya ba rawar da ya riga ya taimaka wajen cire guntu daga cikin rami. KaiƘananan guntu a cikin rami yana rage yawan aiki sosai hakowa.
 
Kafin fara hakowa, wurin da za a haƙa ya kamata a ɗan ɗanɗana tare da ƙusa ko rami. Wannan yana da mahimmanci musamman ga masu farawaoh Wannan farkon shigar - a cikin ƙwararrun sharuddan, a »kirner« - yana taimakawa wajen kawar da rawar jiki a lokacin juyin juya halin farko. Bari mu kula cewa tip na rawar sojan ba ya gefe ɗaya bevelled, domin a wannan yanayin za a samu mafi girma bayan hakowa budewa fiye da yadda ake tsammani.
 
Yanke babban tayal madauwari daga abu mafi sira kuma ana kiranta hakowa, ko da yake aiki ne na daban. Wukar rami mai daidaitacce tana aiki azaman kayan aiki. Don "hakowa" tare da wannan tare da kayan aiki, ya zama dole don riga-kafa karamin rami a tsakiyar yanke  rami kuma sanya wurin wukar a wurin. Gyara wuka kamar yadda ake bukata nisa daidai da diamita na ramin da muke so mu haƙa. Amurka muna juya ruwan wukake sau da yawa kuma ya fara motsawa  kamar allura akan rikodin gramophone, amma koyaushe a nesa ɗaya daga tsakiya, yankan farantin (hoto 3).
 
yankan tayal madauwari
 
HOTO 3
 
Idan dole ne a shigar da itace a lokacin hakowa, ya kamata a yi hakowa fara da fuskar kayan. Budewar da ke gefe tana da kyau, ko da da kaifi gefuna yayin da a daya gefen wani rawar soja bit yaga kayan idan aka buga. Idan muka huda rami don dunƙule tare da ƙwanƙwasa ko ƙwanƙwasa kai sai ɗan rawar jikimuna buƙatar rami na sama na rami don shugaban dunƙule. Idan ba mu da rawar gani na musamman don hakan, mutum zai yi wani kauri mai kauri, wanda a baya muka yi kasa a samansa zuwa babban kusurwa. Ya kamata a yi aikin hakowa a hankali don kada a yi zurfi sosaiwanda ya shiga cikin kayan.
 
Idan ramin bai wuce ta cikin kayan ba, to, an riga an yi rawar jikiamma dole ne mu sanya alamar inda muke so ya kutsa abu (misali fensir mai launi, goge ƙusa, da sauransu). Haka ne ba za mu ci gaba da fitar da ɗigon rawar soja ba kuma mu auna zurfin rami (Hoto na 4).
 
alamar rawar soja
HOTO 4
 

Tsara

Don guje wa shiryawa, yuwuwar kawai ita ce mun sayi kayan da aka riga aka tsara. Tun da irin wannan kayan ba zai iya samun ko da yaushe, kuma sau da yawa dole mu aiwatar da gefuna, mafi kyau shi ne cewa mu ma da grater a cikin gida bitar. Muna bukatar uku grater: daya don sarrafa m (babban grater), daya don m aiki da kuma daya grater ga tsagi. Daga cikin ukun, za mu iya bar manyan grater, saboda ba za mu kasance a cikin halin da ake ciki ba don aiwatar da manyan, m saman. Kuma lokacin da ya kamata muna aiki, za mu iya amfani da grater don aiki mai kyau. Tabbas, aikin zai ɗauki lokaci mai tsawo.
 
Zuciyar grater wuka ce mai kaifi (fig. 5) tare da ratare da ruwa. Kwancen ruwa shine 25 °. Dole ne a yi amfani da wuka yayin aiki kariya daga bugun karfe, misali. farce da aka manta ko kuma karan sa na iya lalata ruwan ya mayar da shi mara amfaniake bukata. (Idan muka damka shirin ga maigida idan kuma namu ne saboda rashin kulawa, an bar wasu ɓoyayyun ƙusa ko ɓangaren kayan aikin a cikin maabu, ga kowane irin wannan yanki dole ne a biya farashin gani ko planer wuka).
 
tsarin bayyanar
 
HOTO 5
 
Ya kamata a kaifi ruwa na grater kamar yadda zai yiwu nika dutse don kada ruwa ya toshe, watau. na iya gani baya yarda da zagaye na farar dutse. Za mu iya yin kaifi don amfani da kayan aikin taimako, wanda aka yi da allo a kusurwar 25 °, wanda za mu iya riƙe wuka mai tsarawa lokacin da ake kaifi, domin yana da wuya ƙwararren gwani ya iya tantancewa daga ido kusurwar 25 °.
 
Bayan ya kafe wukar a kan wani zagayen dutsen farar fata. Dole ne a daidaita gefuna na ruwa a kan dutse mai lebur. Kada mu manta cewa aikin grater shine ya ba da farfajiya gyara allunan da kyau sosai kamar yadda zai yiwu, kuma bene ne kawai zai iya yin hakan matukar dai ruwan ya yi kyau. A lebur dutse nika za a iya samu daga hardware Stores. Wuka yana wasa a jika ya kamata a yi lebur dutse ta hanyar jan ruwa (kamar a cikin na wuka na yau da kullun) akan dutse a cikin madauwari motsi. Kaifi mai kaifi sai a cire ruwan wukake ta hanyar nika don kada su kasance cikin kayan hagu kaifi alamomi lokacin shiryawa. Wanene mafari a'a sai ya ji kunyar “sata” wannan ilimin daga wani ubangida.
 
An gyara wuka na mai tsarawa tare da igiya na katako a cikin budewa na shirinyaro. Lokacin daidaitawa, riƙe wuka da yanke tare da babban yatsan hannun hagu hannuwa. Tare da ƙananan bugun guduma, wanda muke riƙe a hannun damanmu, a kunnemu motsa wukar. Ya kamata a yi wannan da fasaha yayin riƙe da grater a cikin iska da tafin hannu da sauran yatsu na hannun hagu.
 
Wuka ya kamata kawai ya tsaya dan kadan daga ƙananan ɓangaren grater, da ruwa dole ne a jera shi da ƙasan mai shirin. Zai fi kyau lokacin da ake sakawa, wuka ba ta fita daga ƙananan ɓangaren grater kwata-kwata cewa ana yin gyare-gyaren wuka tare da ƙananan bugun gudu daga baya gyaran katako na katako. Idan wuka ta tsaya da yawa, ba ta yin sauri yi aiki domin yana da sauƙin kama kayan sosai. Yana da sauki wukar tana taimakawa wajen shiga fiye da janye ta baya. Muhimmanci shi ne a buga wukar da ke gefen wukar don daukar daidai matsayi. Ana sake yin wannan aikin a cikin riƙon "iska". a lokaci guda, grater a hannun hagu (hoto 6).
 
daidaita wukar planer
HOTO 6
 
Lokacin da muke son fitar da wuka, ana buƙatar da yawa buga bayan jikin mai jirgin da guduma sau da yawa, ba shakka idan an tashe shi.
 
Wani muhimmin sashi na grater shine saka (mai tsatsa), wanda ake amfani dashi an gyara wukar da dunƙule. Aikin saka shine yana karya dattin da aka tara a gaban wuka, in ba haka ba za a buda shi don datti da sauri ta shake.
 
Aikin shirin yana gudana a cikin tsari mai zuwa: tare da hannun dama kamo karshen grater din domin babban yatsan ya kwanta zuwa hagu, da sauran yatsu tare zuwa dama kusa da fegon; kama da hannun hagumo grater don saman - ƙarshen gaban hannun, kuma muna sarrafa gratervol. Hannun dama yana ba da isasshen matsi don aiki. Muna gogewa motsi da grater a ko'ina baya da baya a cikin manyan bugun jiniamma, ba tare da dannawa da yawa akan grater ba. Lokacin janyewa baya, dan lankwasa grater zuwa gefen, don haka ajiye wuka.
 
Ya kamata ku yi shiri koyaushe tare da jagorancin filayen itace, saboda ba ma mafi kyawun sakawa ba zai iya ajiye allo ko lath daga tarkoidan shirin an yi akasin haka. Babu bukatar nadama kokarin daidaita allon yadda ya kamata. Idan aka canza hanya zaruruwa, dole ne mu ko da yaushe sanya grater a cikin shugabanci na fiber, don haka a ko da yaushe za mu yi shiri ta wata hanya kuma ta wata hanya saukar da fiber (Figure 7).
 
Mafi wahala shine shirin shimfidar wuri na giciye, saboda Dole ne wuka ta yanke zaruruwa ta hanyar wucewa don haka ta karya su. ya rabu. Wannan shi ne yanayin da ƙarshen allunan. A irin wadannan lokuta ya kamata a shirya daga gefen waje zuwa tsakiya. Wannan ba musamman sauki aiki domin grater jerks hannaye (hoto 7, tsakiya).
 
shiryawa
 
HOTO 7
 
Ana amfani da grater mai tsaftacewa don daidaita saman da aka shirya. Farantin karfe ne na rectangular tare da kaifi mai kaifi, wanda rike shi da hannaye biyu, ja shi saman da aka shirya kuma ta wannan hanyar yana wanke ragowar rashin daidaituwa.
 
Shirye-shiryen yana buƙatar a sarrafa kayan aikin da ƙarfi clamps da kuma gudu da ƙarfi a cikin shirin shirin, saboda lokacin a lokacin sarrafa shi yana da ƙarfi mai ƙarfi. Don haka, bari mu saita batun akan teburin aiki, idan ba mu da benci na kafinta, kuma ku haɗa shi hannu ya dafe shi akan dunƙulewa. Kada mu zauna a kan teburmuna buƙatar tebur mai goge tare da ƙananan ƙafafu, amma ya kamata mu zabi teburin dafa abinci mai nauyi, rufe. Mu jingina kan teburin a bango ko, har ma mafi kyau, kusa da allon da ake sarrafa shi. Duk da haka, a wannan yanayin, akwai haɗarin cewa babban yatsan hannun hagunmu zai karye saboda rashin aiki, yana makale tsakanin bango da tip.
 
Magani mai amfani: bari mu sanya shi tsakanin teburin aikin da ya gina bukkar da aka lullube da wani kauri mai kauri zuwa gefan teburin da kofato ba sa yin karo ba tare da buga bango da sauƙi ba. Aiki yanzu muna ɗaure yanki tare da ƙugiya zuwa teburin da aka rufe da bargovol. Hakanan zamu iya sanya mai bakin ciki tsakanin gefuna na soket da bango guntun allo (Hoto na 7, ƙasa).
 
Idan muka yi jirgin saman giciye-sashe na zaruruwa, da workpiece bari mu matsa shi da mangels domin zaruruwa su tafi a tsaye. Kusa hannayen hannu kada su zama wani abu da zai iya don cutar da hannunmu.
 
Rasps da fayiloli don tsarawa
 
Tare da kayan haɗi don yin rajista da tsarawa, saman zai iya zama sarrafa itace ba tare da wani ilimi na musamman ba. A cikin wannan na'urorin haɗi sun haɗa da rasp da fayil na itace. Bangaren da ake sarrafa shi ya kamata a gyara shi a tsayin gwiwar hannu (hoto na 8). Muna riƙe fayil ɗin da hannun hagu don tip, kuma da hannun dama don rikewa, da danna shi akan abin da ake shiryawa, muna ja da baya kamar haka cewa duk tsawon fayil ɗin ya wuce saman don a goge shiyayi. Lokacin daidaita sassan saman da gajeren bugun jini tare da fayil suna kaiwa ga burin. Yawancin lokaci ana gama su da fayil gefuna, buɗaɗɗen buɗe ido, zagaye, ƙarewa da sarrafawa giciye-sashe na zaruruwa. Kuma a nan akwai yiwuwar hakan ƙaramin itace ko babba ya karye. Idan aka sarrafa yanki da aka kama tsakanin guda biyu iri ɗaya na itace, yana rage sda yiwuwar karya gefuna.
 
daidaitawa na lath don tsarawa da tsarawa
HOTO 8
 
Gudun itace da ƙananan askewa da sauri suna toshe haƙora fayiloli, kuma hakan yana da wahalar tsaftacewa. Hanya ɗaya don tsaftacewa fayiloli shine amfani da goshin waya. Duk da haka, goga na waya yana lalata haƙoran fayil ɗin, kuma tsaftacewa har yanzu ba XNUMX%. BoWata hanyar tsaftacewa ita ce jiƙa fayil ɗin a cikin ruwan zafi sannan ana tsaftace shi da goga na yau da kullun. Ta wannan hanyar, mu ma an cire mula da shavings na filastik kayan. Bayan irin wannan tsaftacewa, fayil dole ne mu goge mu bushe, in ba haka ba zai yi tsatsa. Idan an shigar da shi ba za a yi amfani da shi na dogon lokaci ba, za mu iya ja shi tare da ɗan ƙaramin mai, wanda za mu cire kafin sake amfani da shi ta hanyar shigar da wani sharar gida.

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