sanin itace

Ilimin itace

Itace mai yiwuwa, kusa da dutse, abu na farko da aka yi mutum ya yi kayan aiki da kayan haɗi don kansa. Taimakon farko na mutum na farko ba ba zai iya zama komai ba sai wasu kulab, hannun jari, reshe, ko ƙaya, wanda asalinsa ya ɓace a ƙarni na baya.
 
Itace ba kawai yana da fa'ida akan wasu a baya ba kayan, har yanzu yana da fifiko kamar yadda aka fi amfani dashifita kayan. Duk da haka, a matsayin kayan aiki - musamman bayan abubuwan da suka faru filastik taro - an kashe shi, saboda yawan "itace" kayan aiki irin su hannun kayan aiki, jikin mai tsarawa, da sauransu. suna yin yau daga robobi. A yau, an fi amfani da itace azaman abu, farawa daga tsarin rufin zuwa kwarangwal mosassa na jirgin, daga manyan kantuna zuwa siffofi na katako.
 
Ilimin itace
 
Da farko kallo, da alama yana da sauƙin nemo hanyarku a tsakanin bishiyoyikayan aiki. Duk da haka, wannan ba haka ba ne: don fahimta, rarrabuwa, amfani da sarrafa itace ya zama dole ilimin sana'a.
 
Lokacin aiki a ƙarƙashin jagorancinsa, mutum yana saduwa da itace kamar yadda aka yi da katako, watau. samfurin da aka gama. Irin wadannan uwayensun kasance: laths, beams, planks, alluna da slabs. Duk waɗannan kayan ana iya yin su da itace mai laushi ko tauri. Bambanci tsakanin waɗannan kayan duka a fagen sarrafawa da kuma tsawon lokacinauyi ne mai girma. Ana gane itace mai laushi da manyan zaruruwansa, a fili rauni tsarin da sauki compressibility. Kusan mafi itace mai laushi da ake amfani dashi shine fir. Itacen fir yana da sauƙi kuma mai kyau za a iya siffata. A cikin gida da kuma kewayen gida, ana amfani da shi don yin: kofofi, tagogi, firam, da sauransu. Manya sun kasance suna cewa mu Itace mai laushi tana bin duk rayuwarta, ta fara daga yin shimfiɗar jariri zuwa akwatin gawa.
 
Hardwood ya fi girma, ya fi girma da nauyi. Kubik ɗaya wani decimeter na roughwood yana da nauyin 830 g, kuma girma iri ɗaya na itace mai laushi kawai 450 gr. Hardwood zaruruwa ne m rarraba da kuma nuna layi mai kyau. Itace ta fi wuya a raba kuma akwai ƙarancin tsaga. Kyakkyawan misali don nuna halaye katako itace rike tsintsiya, kayan aiki iri-iri da parquet. Bishiyoyi masu ganyaye masu kama da allura, masu kore, suna da taushi, kuma daga deciduous, Birch, poplar, willow da linden ana ɗaukar su masu laushi.
 
Busassun itace kawai tare da ƙasa da 13% ya dace da sarrafawa. danshi. Itace ya ƙunshi danshi ba kawai lokacin da nan da nan ba ana sarrafa sarewa (sai a ce cikin zolaya a kan wannan bishiyar wani blackbird ne ya rera shi kwanan nan"), amma kuma lokacin da ake ci gabakwikwiyo ya sami damar shayar da danshi. An san cewa itace hygroscopic ne, amma da sauri ruwan sha yana fitowa a hankali daga ciki evaporates. Itace mai laushi dole ne ta tsufa aƙalla shekaru biyu bayan yanke shekaru, da wuya hudu, domin bushe isa ga sarrafa. Tabbas, wannan shine lamarin lokacin da ake yin bushewa a cikin yanayin kyauta, watau. ta halitta. Yanzu akwai na'urorin kwamfuta na zamani da na'urorin bushewa da ke tafiyar da aikin bushewar itace, kuma lokacin busasshen itacen ya ragu sau da yawa.
 
Lokacin da ruwa ya ƙafe daga rigar itace - musamman lokacin bushewa da moistening sau da yawa a jere, itacen yana da lahani sosailinzamin kwamfuta, yana "aiki". Wannan abu ne mai fahimta idan kun yi la'akari da hakan danshin da bishiyar ke sha zai iya kaiwa kashi 130% na busasshen busasshen itace. Nakasa ya dogara da wurinmadawwamin gunkin bishiyar, daga inda aka yanke katako. Idan fahimtar nakasar ba zai kasance ba, saboda wasu ra'ayoyio bai cika ba, mu fara fahimtar kanmu da sunayen sassan da tsara tsarin bishiyar, ta amfani da Hoto 1.
 
tsarin itace
HOTO 1
 
Hoto na 2 yana nuna yadda alluna da katako ke lalacewa yanke daga daidaikun sassan jiki. Mafi mahimmancin halayyar itace shine: yawan rigar itace yana raguwa saboda bushewa. Aiki abin da kuke buƙata ke nan lokacin yin abubuwa daga abubuwan itace "daidai" da kyau kuma a yanka su zuwa girman girman dan kadan maimakon Kadan. (Misali ɗaya bayyananne: a cikin kwandon katako cewa maigadi ya zuba ruwa domin bishiyar ta kumbura, kwano ya kumbura ya daina zuba ruwa. Allon yana sha ruwa yana kumbura sosai cewa tsagewar "kusa" kuma tudun ruwa ba ya zube).
 
nakasar itace
 
HOTO 2
 
Siffar sifa ta itace ita ce ta fi jurewa a cikin shugabanci na zaruruwa, amma yana da sauƙi a dunƙule sama, yayin da shi ne perpendicular zuwa ga shugabanci. zaruruwa karya sauƙi. Juriya ya bambanta sosai tare da jaraba daga yawa da daidaituwa na rarraba fiber. Filaye masu kauri samar da mafi girma juriya, kuma a cikin wurin sako-sako da rashin daidaituwajuriya na zaruruwan da ke da sarari daidai gwargwado yana raguwa.
 
Ana yanke katakon katako mai tsayi a kan hanyar hatsi, sai dai a lokacin da gungumen ya karkata, gurneti. Wurin girma na rassan an yi musu alama da kulli, da jujjuyawar zaruruwa.
 
Idan katakon da aka yanke ya fi girma fiye da kauri. har zuwa kauri na 40 mm ana kiran allo, kuma sama da wannan kauri taron jama'a. Idan katako yana da sashin giciye mai murabba'i, na yau da kullun polygonal ko rectangular sannan har zuwa girman 10x10 ana kiransa batten, kuma sama da waɗannan girma akwai katako. Idan sashin giciye yana da tsari mai rikitarwa, kamar, alal misali, shirye-shiryen kayan aiki.frame don hotuna, sannan ana kiran shi batten profiled.
 
Lumber da ba a sassaƙa ba a tarnaƙi yana da aƙalla ɗaya gefen da ba a sarrafa ba kuma don haka ba za a iya kiwo ba hirin kusa da juna. An shirya shi, duk da haka, bayan gogewa santsi, kuma yana da filaye masu santsi, ba tare da fasa ba.
 
A aikace, veneers, plywood da latest: panel alluna da veneered allon. sau da yawa-Allunan ana kiransu da kuskuren veneer! Yawancin lokaci ana yin veneer ta hanyar bawon manyan bishiyoyi, wanda ya juya, kusan daidai da lokacin da aka naɗe zanen. Sawed veneer se samu ta hanyar yankan bayan jirgi tare da bishiyar, da veneer peeled da wuka, ta hanyar yankan faranti da wuka a juye tsawon bishiyar. Kauri daga cikin faranti bambanta tsakanin 0,6-1,2 mm. Veneer ba tare da lalacewa ba, ba tare da kulli ba, tare da rubutu mai kyau veneer ne don rufe "fuskar", kuma ba shi da kyau, mai yiwuwa ya lalace kuma ci gaba, manne, shine veneer na gefen baya. Na waje, bayyane tasaman mafi yawan kayan daki an rufe shi da veneer, yayin da ake amfani da wani nau'in veneer, misali, ga baya kayan daki.
 
Ana yin allunan spruce ta hanyar haɗa busassun furs da yawanir faranti a saman juna. Idan jagororin juna suka kasancehenna al'ada ko diagonal, ƙarfi da nauyi kowane da yawa lokutan sun zarce ƙarfi da nauyin allo mai kauri ɗaya. Kauri farantin bisa ga adadin yadudduka ne: 3-5 mm for uku Layer, 6-8 mm na Layer biyar da 9-12 mm don Layer shida.
 
Veneer da plywood ana yin su ne kawai daga katako don haka sun fi allunan kauri irin wannan nauyi. Nauyin su yana ƙaruwa kuma saboda manne.
 
Ana yin allunan panel daga slutt na itace mai laushi manne tsakanin biyu veneer ko plywood allon, wanda ya karu kauri, an samu wuri mai wuya da kyau, da nauyi da ƙarfi sun ɗan fi girma fiye da allunan itace masu laushi masu kauri iri ɗaya. U a cikin masana'antar kayan aiki, allon panel sun sami aikace-aikacen da yawa.
 
Allolin da aka rufe sune allunan katako (plywood, allunan panel, chipboards, katako mai wuyar fiber da sauransu) an rufe shi da allunan filastik talakawa. Suna da ɗaya ko bangarorin biyu santsi, mai sheki da zaɓi fentin (koyi da katako, da dai sauransu). Ba daidai ba ne mai arha, kodayake su ne saboda ƙarfin su, bayyanar da sauƙi tsaftacewa m aikace-aikace.
 
Hard fiber alluna (fiber alluna) ana yin su daga dakakken hemp fibers ko shavings mai laushi gauraye da wucin gadi guduro, wanda bayan thermal ana danna aiki a ƙarƙashin babban matsin lamba cikin faranti. Musamman nauyin su yana da girma kuma tare da katako masu wuya zai iya kaiwa i 150% na takamaiman nauyin ruwa. Ana kiran waɗannan faranti sau da yawa faranti na wucin gadi.
 
Kuma a ƙarshe, wannan rukunin faranti kuma sun haɗa da faranti mara kyau wanda aka yi da lattice ginin katako mai laushi. an rufe shi da faranti. Tun da ba za a iya yanke su ba, daga waɗannan faranti wasu abubuwa ne kawai aka yi, kamar, misali, kofofin.
 

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