paints and varnishes

Coloring agents and protective agents

These are substances that after applyingthey leave a thin layer on the surfacecorative or protective layer (or both and others). What is required of these means: good plasticity which enables obtaining uniformsnog coating, perfect reception for base, reasonable shelf life and a halfcolor fastness. Coloring agents we classify according to substances that make them up.
Water-based paints
Water-based paints are used as solventssplit the water. They are easy to apply and quick are dried (about 2 hours). Their specificcommon use is painting plaster and of concrete.
Milk of lime, which is obtained by growingwith slaked lime, it is used for economic coloring, but it is irresistible: if we rub it even a little, it crumbles. Limenot colors, which are well received on mortar, but not plaster and putty, rarely they use either because of the short life, either due to poor income on the basis. We can do a bit more with lime colorsstabilize with some hardeners. From thewe can get an ordered array of colors by adding other colors to the solutionI floated in the water.
Paints based on plaster and glue are not the bestmore resistant to erasure and use them for premises only. We make them using a special type of plaster in prahu which we knead and dissolve in waterdi, we will bind you with glue. The most is in use, for its practicality, cellulose glue in Ijuska. After as soon as we moisten it in water, it agespit more or less thick pasty mixture. Various colors are easily obtained using water-based vinyl paints. VoI can't do it on the basis of plaster and glue apply on old layers. Before the new one coloring, we have to use it, if it is a base of plaster, remove with a damp sponge until we reach bare plaster. If the substrate is plaster, it is also we need to scrape on wet.
Tempera or water colors that do not they can be washed, they form when drying quite a resistant film. But the film comes off on contact with water. Earlier they did these colors were bound by heating with special glue. Today, meyellow, resorts to already prepared proexcerpts. Old layers of tempera moit's harder to recoat at least once, but if necessary it gets to the plaster, it has to be scraped off. Water colors that can be washed are certainly products that it is suitable for to give the greatest trust. Mocan be applied to a large number of material (any kind of mortar, like and on wood) and are made in wide color spectrum. easily form a lot water and friction resistant layer, no they allow the walls to "breathe". Moto apply new layers on top of the old one color after a simple wash byperformed. The latest colors of this typewhite titanium grows as the main pigment and as a synthetic resin binder. Water paints for application in the premises they are slightly different from those for primeswell from the outside and that by the quality of the binder (in order, vinyl and acrylic) and pigmentthat, in the first case of the brighter ones, in the second casegom, extremely resistant to light. Still water colors for use on external parts of buildings we can apply also for interior rooms, but not vice versa.
Lacquers are used as a solvent different substances, which evaporate faster or slower. They are used mainly for covering wooden or metal surfaces, on which formsraju a very resistant layer, impermeable for water. Clear varnishes are them which when applied to some surfacethe rail allows you to see the meanhim. Pigmented varnishes, on the other hand, leavethey shed a colored film. Email is special a type of varnish that gives a shiny surfaceski layer.
Depending on the nature of various comIn other words, we distinguish several categoriesria of varnishes. Fat Yakovs are on the base of volatile oils (most often it is boiled linseed oil) and natural resins. Like the solvent used is turpentine and they dry in six hours at the earliest. Withoutbattle varnishes of this type are used are mostly for covering the tree which is thus protected, but also characteristic vessels, fibers remain visible. Pigments that they are included in the covering, bothof Iakov are made of "white zinc" and »white titanium", with extras specialof oil paints in order to obtain a larger one choice of various colors. Except for the varnishof wood and iron (metal), these lacoins are often applied to obtain impervious surfaces to the outsideit and the inner walls. Synthpolishes are made of syntheticskih resin, with or without additives prinative oils dissolved in the correspondingstronger solvents. Either colorless varnishes, whether enamels, have the same application as well as fat varnishes, of whichthey rejoice in that they are more resistant to humidity and atmospheric agents, and arethe time is getting shorter (about three hours).
Alcohol-based varnishes are solutions of special resins (copal type) in alcohol. And colorless varnishes and enamels they are not used to give fortop »hands« but only for the base because they give mediocre results.
Nitrocellulose varnishes contain in addition special solvents and natural i artificial plasticizing substances and resins. It is their basic characteristic to evaporate (to dry) in najin the short term (in about 30 minutes) and yes form an extremely thin layer. From that For this reason, sprays are most often appliedwith it, not with a brush (sold in  spray bottles). They are used a lot for painting metal, and they give good results results on wood and the most common wallnim substrates.
Water-based enamels, they simplify small varnishesworks because they do not require any preliminary preparation of basic colorsma (base colors). And what not require special solvents, already can also be dissolved in plain water represents no small advantage. The table in terms of resistance, shine and durability, they are no weaker than traditional ones enamel.
enamel varnish 
Protective paints and varnishes
Protective paints and varnishes should protect the surfaces on which they are applied and yes thus they achieve good conservationterial. Almost every problem conteasing can be solved by answeringmore product.
Waterproof varnishes, like those on the base silicone, are transparent liquids that they protect surfaces from moisture and do not change their appearance. They are often applied externallynot the walls.
Lacquers based on polyester and polyureatana form a protective pro on the treelayer that is impermeable to waterlong and quite resistant to scratches. They are used for wooden floors and window frames, doors and in general, outsidenow woodworking.
Antibacterial, antiparasitic and fungicidal colors protect against parasite attacks not only wood, but any other material (mortar, concrete, stone, opewhere). They are not poisonous and the rain can't kill them floors.
Anti-salt paints are applied thcom on walls damaged by saltpeter. Previously, the walls should be aged with a brushlet's clean up. They serve as a basis for painting, installing wallpaper or some other wall coverings.
Finally, let us mention that they exist and non-flammable paints that protect wood and other inflammable hazardous materialsthe burden of fire. They can be prevented breaking out of a larger fire due to some timewhat connection, forgotten cigarette, etc. They are applied in an approximately thick layer one tenth of a millimeter on wood, cardboard, plywood, masonite. In touch with fire, color creates a kind solid foam that prevents fire comes into contact with the material on which the paint is applied. A different kind Fire-resistant paint for wood reacts by preventing carbonization (carbonusization) and saves mechanical karakteristics of wood.
paints and varnishes 
Means for preparing the substrate
Means for preparing the substrate are colors that are applied with a brush like the first hand on the surfaces to make later better received the following, final »ruke". They can be:
-insulating paints, which bitebegins the porosity of the substrate (plaster, wood) and prevents that when completed Stains break out due to different dyeing absorption;
- basic colors for providing a base on wood, like cementite and others they fill the pores of the wood and create smooth surface for later varnishing,
-anti-corrosive paints are applied to metal to prevent rusting.
For this purpose, apart from classic leadnog minium (lead oxide) in Flaxseed oil is often used and synthetic products with pigments based on chromium and iron oxide, whose the advantage is that it is much faster were. There are also products that are still dries faster - in one hour on average, Wash color example allowsthe better the reception of lacquers on metal, and they are necessary as a first hand on galvanized metal on which otherwise it could not receive the layer common varnishes.

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