chisels

Chisel work, drilling, planing

Chisel work

 
Mastering at home is impossible without working with a chisel to be performed completely. Joints of furniture parts bythe power of slots and plugs, installing locks, adjusting hinges on the door it is impossible to perform without the use of a chisel.
 
For average operations of various types of chisels it is necessary have about three or four. Chisels with more complicated profiles (oblique, crescent-shaped, etc.), used by sculptors and carpenters for making stylish furniture.
 
The chisel blade is made of steel, and the handle is made of steel is hit on it - made of wood. The most important part of the chisel is the blade, which is usually at an angle of 25° (Figure 1, part 1).
 
The most used chisels are:
 
flat chisel with a rectangular section,
 
flat chisel with bevelled edges,
 
hollowed carpenter's chisel and
 
long chisel for openings.
 
The chisel handle must be supplied from the top with a metal ring that includes a slightly narrowed upper part handles so that the handle does not break when struck with a wooden hammeris blooming.
 
The blade of the chisel is straight (it is only in the hollow chisel convex) and should be held in the cutting plane. Beveled part the chisel should be facing the part of the wood being cut, throws out (fig. 1, part 2-5).
 
chisel work
PICTURE 1
 
When working with a chisel, pay attention to the direction of the fiber of wood, because with a stronger blow, the wood can crack in the direction of the treehenna. (fig. 1, part 6,7).
 
When we want to chisel a recess for the plug, first we have to cut the part that is normal to the direction of the fiber and only then the part that is parallel to the fiber (fig. 1, part 2, 2/a, 3, Z/a). We must first place the material on a solid surface the base to avoid vibrations during operation, tighten as much as possible as close as possible to the part being cut, at least during work material and move. The chisel should be held firmly while working, no for the metal part, but for the handle, grasping it with your fingers.
 
Squares can be cut with a long narrow chisel deeper holes for the plug. If the plug needs to pass through the material then it is better to open the hole on both sides alternately. The cutting depth will then be smaller on both sides.
 
The semicircular chisel is used for cutting circular openings and for removing the sharp edges of the wood.
 
The part of the chisel opposite the blade is pointed and square-shaped, and serves for "implantation" in the handle. The most common place The chisel point is the tapered part below the handle. When in that place the chisel breaks, it becomes unusable for further work. If If the chisel handle fails, it can be easily replaced. If if the blade is damaged, it can be sharpened againprotect
 
The handle is adjusted in such a way that the chisel is pressed in first into the handle with the pointed end, then grasp the handle and hold it is in the air, hit the is with a hammer several timesumbilical part of the handle.
 

Drilling

You need to know how to drill! On the face of it, drilling seems like the besta simpler operation in woodworking, but in practice it is only if you have the right tool. The most necessary the tool for drilling holes for screws and nails is a needle drill. To drill larger holes, you need a drill, because working with larger needle drills or twist drills require certain practice (Figure 2).
 
drilling
PICTURE 2
 
Since we cannot have all of them in our small workshop tool, it is best if we provide one known hand drill under the name "American". This drill can do both with both spiral and smaller twist drills. For cranking because of the gearing, it doesn't take much effort, so that even the uninitiated can handle it. Let's set it backing plate under the material we are drilling, regardless whether the drilling is performed by hand or with another drill (račulet's say that the drill bit will eventually go through the material) and all forgrip one firmly so that the drill does not catch the material and he started turning it.
 
Always choose a lower number of revolutions for drilling wood. If we work with an electric drill and at the smallest number of revolutions, drilling should be interrupted every 15-20 seconds. Pri with rapid drilling, the wood can heat up so much that it changes color and even catch fire. Sharp sound, fine smoke stripes or the smell of burning forest warns of it. Periodically removing the bit from the material when drilling not only cools the drill already helps to pull the chip out of the hole. HeaderA small chip in the hole greatly reduces efficiency drilling.
 
Before starting drilling, the place to be drilled should be slightly indented with a nail or a hole punch. This is especially necessary for beginnersoh This initial indentation - in professional terms, a »kirner« - it helps in removing the drill during its first revolutions. Let's pay attention that the tip of the drill bit is not one-sided bevelled, because in that case a larger one will be obtained after drilling opening than expected.
 
Cutting a larger circular tile from a thinner material as well is called drilling, although it is a completely different type of operation. An adjustable hole knife serves as a tool. For "drilling" with this with the tool, it is necessary to pre-drill a small hole in the center of the cutout  hole and place the point of the knife there. Adjust the knife as needed distance according to the diameter of the hole we want to drill. USA we turn the blade a few times and it starts to move  like a needle on a gramophone record, but always at the same distance from the center, cutting the plate (picture 3).
 
cutting a circular tile
 
PICTURE 3
 
If the wood must be penetrated during drilling, drilling should be done start with the face of the material. The opening on that side remains beautiful, even with sharp edges while on the other side a drill bit tears the material when punched. If we drill a hole for a screw with a countersunk or lenticular head then a drill bitwe need to hollow out the upper part of the hole for the screw head. If we don't have a special drill for that, one will do a thicker drill, the top of which we previously ground to a larger angle. The drilling operation should be done carefully so as not to go too deepwho penetrated the material.
 
If the hole does not pass through the material, then the drill is pre-drilledbut we must mark the place where we want it to penetrate material (e.g. colored pencil, nail polish, etc.). That's right we won't have to constantly take out the drill bit and measure the depth of the hole (picture 4).
 
marking the drill bit
PICTURE 4
 

Planing

To avoid planing, the only possibility is to we buy already planed material. Since such material can't always get, and often we have to process the edges, the best is that we also have a grater in the home workshop. We need three grater: one for rough processing (large grater), one for fine processing and one grater for grooves. Of these three, we can leave out the large grater, because we will rarely be in the situation to process large, rough surfaces. And when we have to we are working, we can use a grater for fine processing. Of course, the work will take longer.
 
The heart of the grater is a well-sharpened knife (fig. 5) with a rawith the blade. The blade angle is 25°. The knife must be used during operation protect against hitting a metal object, e.g. a forgotten nail or its stem can damage the blade and render it uselessneeded. (If we entrust the planing to the master and if to ours due to carelessness, some hidden nail or part of the hardware is left in the mamaterial, for each such piece the price must be compensated saw or planer knife).
 
planar appearance
 
PICTURE 5
 
The blade of the grater should be sharpened as large as possible grinding stone so that the blade is not dented, i.e. yes visible do not accept the roundness of the whetstone. We can do sharpening to use an auxiliary tool, made of a board at an angle of 25°, on which we can hold the planer knife when sharpening, because it is difficult for an experienced craftsman to determine from the eye an angle of 25°.
 
After sharpening the knife on a round whetstone, the edges of the blade must be leveled on a flat whetstone. We should not forget that the task of the grater is to give the surface straighten the boards as beautifully as possible, and only the floor can do that provided that the blade is ideally flat. A flat grinding stone can be obtained from hardware stores. Knife sharpening in the wet a flat stone should be performed by dragging the blade (as in of an ordinary knife) on the stone in circular motions. Sharp edges the blades should then be removed by grinding so that they are not in the material left sharp marks when planing. Who is a beginner no he should be ashamed to "steal" this knowledge from some master.
 
The knife of the planer is fixed with a wooden wedge in the opening of the planerchild. When adjusting, hold the knife and wedge with your left thumb hands. With small blows of the hammer, which we hold in our right hand, onlet's move the knife. This should be done skillfully while holding the grater in the air with the palm and other fingers of the left hand.
 
The knife should only stick out a little from the lower part of the grater, and the blade it must be flush with the underside of the planer. It's best to when inserting, the knife does not protrude from the lower part of the grater at all that the adjustment of the knife is carried out with small blows of the hammer afterwards fixing the wooden wedge. If the knife sticks out too much, it doesn't accelerate work because it very easily grips the material too deeply. It is easier the knife helps to engage more than to pull it back out. Important is to tap the knife on the side of the blade to take the correct one position. This operation is performed again in the "air" holding at the same time, the grater in the left hand (picture 6).
 
adjustment of the planer knife
PICTURE 6
 
When we want to take out a knife, several are needed hit the back of the planer's body with a hammer several times, of course when raised.
 
An important part of the grater is the insert (the rust breaker), which is used for the knife is fixed with a screw. The task of the insert is to it breaks the accumulated scum in front of the knife, otherwise it would open for scum quickly choked.
 
The planing operation proceeds in the following order: with the right hand grasp the back end of the grater so that the thumb lies to the left, and the other fingers together to the right next to the peg; grab with your left handmo grater for the top - the front end of the handle, and we control the gratervol. The right hand gives enough pressure to work. We scrape moving the grater evenly back and forth in large strokesbut, without pressing too much on the grater. When withdrawing backward, slightly bend the grater to the edge, thus saving the knife.
 
You should always plan along the direction of the wood fibers, because not even the best insert can save a board or lath from a snagif the planing is done the opposite way. No need to regret effort to adjust the board properly. If the direction is changed fibers, we must always place the grater in the direction of the fiber, therefore we will always plan in one direction and in another direction down the fiber (Figure 7).
 
The most difficult is the planing of the cross-sectional surface, because the knife has to cut the fibers crosswise and therefore breaks them, it splits. This is the case with the ends of the boards. In such cases should be planed from the outer edges towards the middle. This is not especially easy work because the grater jerks the hands (picture 7, middle).
 
planing
 
PICTURE 7
 
A cleaning grater is used for leveling planed surfaces. It is a rectangular steel plate with a sharp edge, which holding it with both hands, drag it over the planed surface and in this way it cleans the residual unevenness.
 
Planing requires that the workpiece be machined tightly clamps and to run firmly in the planing direction, because when during processing there is a strong jerk. So, let's set the subject on the work table, if we don't have a carpentry bench, and attach it hand clamp it onto the screw. We must not sit on the deskwe need a polished table with thin legs, but we should let's opt for a heavier, covered kitchen table. Let's lean on the table on the wall or, even better, next to the board being processed. However, in this case, there is a danger that the thumb of our left hand will be broken due to inertia, it gets stuck between the wall and the tip.
 
A practical solution: let's place it between the work table and he builds a hutch covered with a thick cloth to the edges of the table and the hooves do not collide without hitting the wall lightly. Working now we fasten the piece with clamps to the table covered with a blanketvol. We can also put a thinner one between the edges of the socket and the wall a piece of board (Figure 7, bottom).
 
If we plane the cross-section of the fibers, the workpiece let's clamp it in mangels so that the fibers go vertically. Close hands must not be any object that could to hurt our hand.
 
Rasps and files for planing
 
With the accessories for filing and planing, the surface can be wood processing without any special knowledge. In this one accessories include a rasp and a wood file. The part being processed should be fixed at elbow height (picture 8). We hold the file with the left hand for the tip, and with the right hand for the handle, and pressing it on the object being planed, we pull back and forth like this that the entire length of the file passes over the surface to be polisheddoes. When leveling parts of the surface and short strokes with a file they lead to the goal. They are usually finished with a file edges, drilled openings, rounding, finishing and processing cross-section of fibers. And here there is a possibility that a smaller or larger piece of wood breaks off. If processed piece caught between two similar pieces of wood, reduces sand the possibility of breaking the edges.
 
adjustment of the lath for planing and filing
PICTURE 8
 
Wood resin and small shavings quickly clog the teeth files, and that is difficult to clean. One way to clean files is the use of a wire brush. However, a wire brush it damages the teeth of the file, and the cleaning is still not XNUMX%. BoAnother cleaning method is to soak the file in hot water and then is cleaned with an ordinary brush. In this way, we are also removedla and shavings of plastic materials. After such cleaning, file we must wipe and dry, otherwise it will rust. If it is filed won't use it for a long time, we can drag it with a thin layer of oil, which we will remove before reuse by filing some waste piece.

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