electric drill

Electric drill (parts, types of drills, mode of operation)

Electric drill
How to approach correctly machines
In stores today you canand a wide selection of small machines with nonim accessories and accessories and specialnim tools, with which it is possible greatly expand the field of work. Should to mention, however, that rather ondeals with such machines are always better learn to do with hand tools as we could later do bothby machine. That way we will be able to get the exact type of machine which we need, and with it fromspeaking accessories, manualsand already determined needs. On the eventually, we will be able to machine properly to use. It's good to check before purchase decisions, whether they are made at all pays off. The same work done by the hand of desireva much more time and effort; ohthe rail, for its part, has its own cost price, takes up space, appyour maintenance. That's why it's good to drinkIt is difficult to know how much the machine will actually do use during one month, or year and whether it will be able to hold on somewhere without difficulty.
Almost all of us believe that a little bit we will be able to do it faster and easier with pothe power of the machine what we are unable to do to do with a hand tool. At mostin many cases it is an illusion. Since we acquired a machine withcheating equipment, after the series of unsuccessful attempts we leave it and what's worse, we leave the whole thing field of work. The man actually stays convinced that the group of works, for which is a machine intended, simply beyond his abilities. Actually, a logical path should have been followed: first learn to do it manually, and only then buy a machine.
Who knows how to use a manual boowith a spike, it will be wrong, or with a backwith the desired result, use i electric drill. Who does not know that saws boards, panels or laths hand saws, will regularly get poor results with a chainsaw, with the risk of injury, especially with circular saws. Who does not know that sharpen the chisel with a whetstonemena, he won't be able to do that even on the round motor sander. One period lunchleg apprenticeship is therefore certainly necessary before we approach working with the help of machines and their everything numerous additions.
Electric drill
According to statistics, in the USA eight a family of ten owns one electric drill, and in Velika Brithinner six out of ten. Electric drillfaces can be used for drilling opening, can be placed on a stand and be used as a table drill (like a real "sensitive drill" in the bellowsnic workshop) or they can go to it attach rotary tools. Yes, yesskin to serve as an engine for movementthinner series of various continuations of pretvacutting into a hole saw, circular saw, or even in a real carpenter's lathe. It basically consists of lamellar collector with brushes and is in good condition yes, even under load, it develops high torque. The engine starts shaft that carries a rotating one on top head with three grippers that fit beforethey should be clamped around the shaft of the drill bit or other hand tools. Tightening done with a key, otherwise necessarythe accessory leg that always goes with the drillcus and which is serrated near the top. Key is placed in the corresponding hole and it is toothed with gears on the crown heads. This is because it fastens a hand drill would not be enough firmly, and use a notched keywith iron jaws would quickly lead to damage to the head itself.
An electric drill usually has a shape pistol, on the handle of which there is a switch motor power supply. By the other in words, by pressing the punch switchfaces begin to turn; his releasing it stops the drill. In addition, almost all models have sa side, next to the switch, button for blocking. That way the drill continues to work despite the fact that we released the switch. It doesn't seem like that so often when drilling, but mostlynom when the electric drill coroars like an engine for various machines (milling machine, turning lathe).
Internal parts
Electric drills are placed in the housingnor are its basic parts: the shaft head that is held on a solid rollersouthern bed which is protected from prarails and which practically does not require a floorsmearing. The motor shaft transmits rotates on the shaft of the drill head through one pair of gears and carries cooling fan. It's in the handle capacitor, with a suitable capciteta connected to the motor brushes, (capacity depends on the characteristics of motora). The function of the capacitor is to reduce sparking between the brushes and collector when the electric motor is in operation. Sparking would otherwise cause interference in the operation of radio and television receivers in neighboring rooms (humming and lines across the screen), so it already is rule that capacitors against disturbances are incorporated not only into the electrike drills, but also in all household ones electrical appliances powered by motor with collector and brushes.
Single speed drills
It is actually offered in stores today a wide selection of drills and that with a large one differences in characteristics. First and the simplest model is the easiest and cheapesttinier, constructed more or less as is described above. Only the shape changes, weight (from a kilogram and a half to over three kilograms), power (of 200 volts to over 400 volts) and are different disizes of drill bits and tools that can be used fasten in the rotating head. The majority besides the handle, the drill also has an auxiliary one a handle that is placed laterally and it is fixed in the case, and which omoguzava to hold and steer better drill during use.
Nevertheless, the basic feature of this group of electriple drills is to have only one working speed, which again can quite a lot to change from model to model: the number of revolutions per minute is code some 800, others 1.800, 2.500 or so even 3.000. So, it is about a drillhigh speed cams, as a result of which their use is reIatively limited.
Drills with multiple speeds
These drills are different from the previous onesthem in that they can turn around on two or four speeds. The structure is basically the same as already described, only they are bigger and heavier, because they are in the case they still have to accommodate me and the gearsnacha. Otherwise, the gearbox is started fromout using the appropriate handle. This second group of drills is more expensive on average by 20-30%, but provides a lotgo greater possibilities of application precisely because the speeds can be adjusted. This means that they are suitable for drilling different materials, because some have it it is important that the speed is low and vice versa. A well-adjusted speed protects itself a drill and drills, and the openings are made much more precisely. For example, drill- faces with two speeds can be reversed at 750 rpm, or at 1.900, and a four-speed drill can has 600, 850, 1900 and 2700 revolutions in minutes.
Drills with variable rotation mode i combined drills
The third group of drills is with electronwith a skim device that evenly menja mode of rotation of the head in the frame the lowest and highest number of revolutions, i.e. practically from 0 to, for example, 2000, what is the maximum number of turnoversme. This device is switched on externally by means of a handle, whether it is a drill in operation, whether it is switched off.
Combined models are also on sale, which, in addition to the gearbox, also have continuous electronic variator. U in that case, they certainly increase drill dimensions, weight and price, but at low revs, torque is higher (with the same engine power), than in models with a variator, but without gearbox. This high torque, at low speeds, it is important for some specific works.
Impact drills
Impact drills (vibracing drills, hammer drills) have a device that can be turned onread or exclude as necessary, and which head next to her normal circlenog movement adds more and quickly, praVolynian movement back and forth.
With this, the tool, in addition to turning and striking, i.e. beats on the surface we cultivate. Impact drills can be single-nozinske, can have a gearbox with two or four speeds, can have a changefree mode for rotations using electron variator, or, combined, with multiple speeds and electronic variaspeed torus. Analogously, such moparts are on average heavier, bigger, bigger strength and certainly far more expensive. Impacthe doesn't use the device especially when he needs to drill reinforced concrete columns, staircases, solid brick walls, stone walls. At home, in most casesteas, such works are rarely practicedthey tick. There may be a need to place an insert (dowel) in some structure of reinforced concrete, but with something more effort and a little patience that mowe will also do it with a drill without impact drive. Impact drills are used for this most often classified as professional tools. In fact, they are used by artisans who install hanging furniture, elecplumbers, plumbers, workingthose who install the gas installation, builders who install stepsfences, door and window frames, etc even some modern sculptors.
Multi-speed impact drill, or even better, with continuous electronskim variator, can do (when the shock device is turned off) everything work performed by drillers without of that device, so that even amateurs canto serve them without difficulty. But higher price (which can increase significantly, even twice compared to the answersroaring models without shock pogona), could hardly be justified by frequent use.
impact drill 
Rotational speed depending on material
A question of speed, that is. of revolutions in minutes of some electric drill veilbut it is important, and we will try to do that to show on the example of drilling holes with a spiral drill. It is clear that the speed with which the edge of the drill bit was cutremoval of chips from the material (speed cutting) proportional to the rotation speednja drill bits (thus also drill heads), i.e. the diameter of the drill itself. By the other in words, it means that at the same number the revolutions of the drill, the cutting speed, or penetration into the material, drill bitsall diameters are not the same. In order to result operation was good, rotation speed was not may cross a certain limit, because is normally drilled. overheats, reheats, (loses hardness) and loses quickly blade - no longer cuts. That's enough a few seconds of work at something viat high speeds, so that it is destroyed drill. A drill that overheats hissesdi, irons the bottom of the hole, instead of being deepens, even when he insistsmo, that is with strength we try to prowe doze deeper, but without results.
The correct cutting speed depends on of the material to be drilled: it is high for wood, aluminum and woodalloys and brass. Much lower is the optimal speed for ordinary steel, even lower for special steels, and the lowest for stainless steels, bronze and copper.
A quick drill, with one speed, therefore suitable for drilling wood and aluminum, while other metals mowe will only drill with drill bits of small diameters, precisely because no we would exceed the allowed critical speedno cutting. That speed is not strictly fromordered: it is always a matter of greater tolerancewhich we must not cross. It can be said that drilling at speed (revs) far below optimal, represents a certain loss in vremenu; but our effort will pay off and we will do the job well.
However, work at a much higher speed from optimal, it makes the job very difficult, if it doesn't even disable it, then damages the drill bits, requires up toit's a waste of effort and time. If in spite of that we manage to break outwe sew a hole, we usually do it badly done (the diameter of the hole comes out larger than of the diameter of the drill bit, acquires an oblique shape, unwanted slope, the walls of the hole become grooved, the material is overheated and so forth). It is clear, therefore, that even and when we want an electric drill we only use it for drilling holesmore common diameters (from 2-10 millimetersra), we should pay attention to speed and to decide on the purchase slower models, not faster ones, if Of course, we are not sure that we will use only for wood and aluminumminimum.
This kind of thinking also applies to the others accessories that can be attached to electric drill. Every tool, bio it router, sanding disc, rubber roller with fur for polishing, sanding kamen, rotating metal brush or some the second tool, has its optimal operationnu speed (thus rotation speed), which the manufacturer usually indicates on packaging. The scale of these speeds is quite a lot wide but clear: a steel brush for removing old paint from metal fences, we will be able to use them at vijuicy numbers of revolutions; rubber disc of 10-12 centimeters for polishing furniture or cars, you will have to use at much lower speeds. The problem seems to be clear and when the drill is used as a drive engine for various machine tools; obrathat some material and every machine it has its own optimal speed work. In most cases, on the machine the manufacturer indicates the number of revolutions under which the best working is obtained effect. If we decide to go shoppingWell, hand-held electric drills, then let's pay attention to what is above already stated: a drill with mo. is betterspeed adjustment density (either using a gear box, either by electronic variatora), because lower revolutions are more important from bigger ones.
Perhaps the question can be raised how that such a large one is offered for sale single speed model number, sometimes with very high numbersrpm (even around 3000)? Sincevor is simple: manual electric drill for home use originates from the USA, the country in which the builderthis tree has first-class importance. To produce, therefore, a tool for processing woodthat during the construction of houses and in general in the hundredlarry and carpentry, it was logical. Models with the possibility of changing the noi revolutions, using a gearbox or electron variator, appeared only later, with more and more choice various accessories for the drill and its using it as a drive motor for various machine tools. Because no a day goes by without a new one coming out model of additional equipment, which greatly expands the application possibilities of the drill, so the constructors perfect them more and morevaju, and especially a drill with more speed. It can also be added the increasing penetration of such drills on European market where wood in houses it is not represented much, and it is increasing application of drills for target worksIu, which require lower speeds obrthinner.
Drilling with an electric drill
An electric drill can do almost anything cases to replace the manual punchcu with zoom gears number of revolutions of the head. But he can't replace the elbow hand drill code some carpentry work, like a tub we need to drill blind holes, or large diameter holes. For drilling hole in the walls, (except in armiraconcrete, full brick and stone) for the installation of inserts, electricianon the drill, especially if it works alone under high rpm, not beforegives more preference to manual with a wall drill. We won't get notowards greater savings neither in effort nor in timemenu, and if we handle it unskillfully, moAlthough we will do serious damage (to break the mortar around the hole, yes drill an oval or too wide hole, et cetera). If we make a strikewith a drill, and it is more powerful, we will certainly make it a lot easier for ourselves and speed up the work, but even then we have to workdemo careful, because with this model the drill bit penetrates easily and quickly into the hole, so we don't even notice how longside, and we can damage the water pipeswater, gas or electrical installationstion, with all the conductors in it. Therefore, it is better to initially we use hand tools, and electric ones drill, especially with impact pogonom, let's use it only when we acquire it some experience.
Steel spiral drill bits
An electric drill can be equipped with the most diverse addedequipment and thus the scale of the works which he can perform expands considerably. However, it usually starts with a tradenim tool that is clamped directly in drill head. Certainly, we will first get drill bits. Two basic types the drills we must have are both of tool steel and so-called he sees the drills whose tips are from yet harder metals. We will get the kits of both kinds, in increasing scales by half a millimeter, or even by half one quarter of a millimeter, if we want to deal exclusively with mehanikom.
The first set of twist drills from of high-speed tool steel can be a little bigger. Quick-cut drill bitsleg of steel, although somewhat cheaper, for they lose their blade for a short time and it doesn't workand for amateur work at home. It is due to the fact that there are many drill bitsSharpen harder than usual thoughts and we can hardly carry it out home, even with the use of a table sanderce with a device for holding a drill bit at the right angle and which enableso that the drill bit turns slightly while the grinder is sharp. Since this guy burGia is not expensive, it is more worthwhile to have them throw them away rather than sharpen them. When they leavepe we can keep them by the bushof wood, which most often does not require especially sharp drill bits. I can give us can also be used for drilling ceramic tileschip with a hammer.
drill bits 
He sees drill bits
The second set, from the so-called vidia drill (the name comes from one of the first to the company that launched the cutting machine on the market a tool whose blades are welded hard metal tiles) does not have to to be as numerous as the previous one. Hard metal is a synthetic material (mixture of metal grains and powders that are under they heat up with pressure until they are obtained compact alloys) in which they are found very hard grains of carbide, tungsten or titanium, along with another methe clay that serves as a binder, which is most often cobalt. Two tiny plopieces of these hard metals are welded on the two working edges of the top burgies. In this way, the blades become dull after a significantly longer period of time but blades made from the best tool steels. Also, saw drill bits they can handle higher drill speeds because they are much more resistant to high temperaturestures that develop during drilling. Of course, they are far more expensive than spiralsof high-speed tool drills steel.
Drilling of reinforced concrete
Vidia drills allow us to in the house we drill holes in the pillars, or reinforced concrete ceilings. We will do that carefully, in twos and threes attempts. First we will make a hole smaller diameter (with a drill of 3mm for example), then we willto drill again with wider drill bits, unitnom or twice, until we get hole of desired diameter (up to maxof about 10 mm). For larger holes diameter, we need to take a drill with impact drive and crown burgiju (hollow inside, with teeth that are distributed frontally along the circumference of the circlenot).
By the way, all craftsmen frown when they do talks about drilling reinforced concrete, because drill bits are definitely damaged (i they can no longer be used for metal), and cracking may also occur the drills themselves. Finally, there is the nutability to drill holes to be extremetriangular, oval or oblique. But, in the house relatively rarely approaches drilling arof still concrete and with the help of the descriptionprocedure and a little patience usuallybut one succeeds in that business.
Hand tools with shaft for fastening in the electric head drills
There are numerous tools that differ from drill and are therefore suitable for other works, which in the same way we attach to the head of the drill (according tothe power of the steel shaft that carries the toolwhere). These are primarily grinding tools of different shapes and dimensions (for skidmetal peels), for grinding jointsnew stitches. Then, there are glodaci, then metal brushes with wire fibers parallel or radially acrossplaced in relation to the axis of rotationnja, and which we use for removing paint and rust on the metal. There are still rubbers discs on which we put the grinding material for finer processing of metal partsmade finer than with metal thcombs, furs for polishing metal, etc. It is not possible to give a full overview here of all kinds of rotating tools by the action of an electric buspike can use. In every case, in well-equipped ironthere are catalogs for local shops of these tools, and we will find them there most easily what you need for some specific job, and get information about new ones products that came out of proderivations.
rotary tools
Extension cable
One special addition, or better, the two together, allow us to versatile tool described above, seewe need easier and more favorable worknom position. These are appropriate the stand to which the drill is attached (every manufacturer has it in their selection parts for their drill models) and flexible transmission - one rotary cable with handle and head same as which is also the head of the drill, in which it canyou can attach any of the mentioned hand tools. In this way, the drill we can strengthen and the tool leadszan cable to place in the best position for work. By the way, cables like this are produced in various lengths (even and over a meter).
So, delete some fence post, fromto iron a piece of furniture, polyrati some metal surfaces, a lot is easier with this accessory, than when we need to keep the whole drill in hands and to move it in different directions positions. It is important that the stand who holds the drill be well adjperformed.
 drill on stand
Some additional electrical accessories a drill
Stores offer more and more varietynog accessories for electric drills which is somewhere in between addednog accessories and special, special machine tools. So, for example, can get a spring loaded screwdriver and a friction coupling that is approxlicks on the electric drill, on place of the head. When pressed, the screwdriver starts to turn (it is needed low speed drill) since two of the coupling element cling to one along with the other and transmit rotational motion from the electric motor to the tip of the screwdriver. The harder you press, the more the screwdriver loosens spins faster. The same device can be equipped with tubular keysma, and so that it serves to tighten the screwher and the nuts. Fast with this toolwe will save a lot of time when we need to unscrew or screw it up a large number of screws. Initially byputting the screw is done by hand, but later a long and tiring screwing is performed using electric buspikes.
One other addition, which is setbetween the drill and the socket enableto reduce and adjust the speed drills. It is a device that changes the voltage using strips. On that one the way was either a drill or something elsea machine with an electric motor can convert to a model with capability speed changes.
There are also additional accessories that can be used mounted on the head of the drill and which omogush to collect, during work, sawdust or dust (if working on the wall or ceilings). As an additional accessory for electric drills are also made adapters that allow them to be placed on the drill head tools that would otherwise required a larger or different head. As a kind of tool, there is also a propeller which allows the drill to be usedwe will be like a mixer for wall paint, varnishes, and various mixtures of small guwhat will. In the last case, if it is well cleaned, can serve as mixer in the kitchen as well.
Since everything butnewer and newer special tools and accessories, it is not out of the question to occasionally follow that development visiting specialistsnot actions.
electric drill on stand
Drill stand
In mechanical works, often moshoulder to drill holes precisely certain places, or in small ones subjects. That's why manufacturers hand drills deliver a specialon bases with a lowering lever or lifting the drill. On the bottom pageno, the stand is in the shape of a small table on which the workpiece is placed. Before we start working, we have to fix the workpiece using a flat vise. Stand (stand) and the drill thus form a tablenu drill - a machine that is not opaccessible to all mechanic workshopscama In slang they call it "feelings".va", because the pressure of the drill is on the frontcan sense and regulate the target finely over the lever, so that the one who handles it with the machine knows exactly whether the drill bit penetrates properly.

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